LIBRARY OF THE
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The annual report of the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society for 1923 has been enlarged into the present volume by
the Secretary. Supplementary matter of interest has been
added in the hope of making the work of greater permanent
value to members of the Society. A synopsis of the Society's
history is given and a valuable paper on the raising of
trees from seeds, for which there has been frequent de-
mands, has been reprinted from the Society's Transactions
of 1885. In consequence of the many changes in form
and contents it has seemed advisable to alter the title and
the Committee on Lectures and Publications takes pleasure
in presenting the first number of the Society's Year Book,
with which is combined the annual report for 1923.
E. H. Wilson, Chairman,
C. S. Sargent,
Committee on Lectures and Publications.
February 23, 1924.
Table of Contents
Officers for 1924 9
Outstanding Events in the History of the Massachu-
setts Horticultural Society ..... 12
The Best Apples for Massachusetts .... 17
Shrubs Recommended for Massachusetts . . .18
Trees Recommended for Massachusetts ... 18
Roses Recommended for Massachusetts ... 18
Hardy Perennials Recommended for Massachusetts . 19
Prize for Native Trees Offered 19
Survey of Trees in New England .... 20
Important Trees of New England .... 24
Sketch of Mr. John McLaren 27
History of the George Robert White Medal of Honor . 28
Chinese Lilies 30
Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Sargent Hunnewell . 33
Library Accessions in 1923 34
Current Periodicals in the Library .... 36
The Best Uses of Fruit and Fruit Varieties . . 39
Flower Exhibitions to be Held at Horticultural Hall in
Memorial to Jackson Dawson . . . . . .45
Propagation of Trees and Shrubs from Seed 46
Medals and Certificates Awarded in 1923 ... 66
Inaugural Meeting in 1924 ...... 72
Address of the President ...... 72
Report of the Secretary 77
Report of the Treasurer 82
Report of the Committee on Exhibitions ... 85
Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers . 88
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Report of the Committee on Fruit
Report of the Committee on Vegetables
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens
Terms of Membership in the Massachusetts Horticultural
Life Members Added in 1923
Annual Members Added in 1923
Necrology for 1923
Honorary Members .
Life Members .
Form of Bequest
List of Illustrations
Mr. Albert C. Burrage
Horticultural Hall, Boston, Mass.
Library in Horticultural Hall ....
Presidents' Gallery, Horticultural Hall
The Historic Old Elm Tree at Wethersfield, Conn.
The Avery Oak at Dedham, Mass.
Mr. John McLaren
Lilium Thayerae .......
The Late Jackson T. Dawson ....
Part of the Exhibit of President A. C. Burrage at the
March Exhibition, 1923
Specimen Acacia Exhibited by Thomas Roland at the
March Exhibition, 1923 ....
■M>:- . ■ yM,,
MR. AliUERT C. BURRAGE
Now serving his fourth term as president
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
OFFICERS FOR 1924
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, of Boston.
THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston.
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookune.
JOHN S. AMES, of North Easton.
E. I. FARRINGTON, of Weymouth.*
JOHN S. AMES, of North Easton.
FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Boston.
ROBERT CAMERON, of Ipswich.
MISS MARIAN R. CASE, of Weston.
MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY, of Boston.
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston.
MRS. HOMER GAGE, of Worcester.
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton.
ARTHUR LYMAN, of Boston.
HENRY H. RICHARDSON, of Boston.
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant.
MRS. BAYARD THAYER, of South Lancaster.
GEORGE C. THURLOW, of West Newbury.
HENRY P. WALCOTT, of Cambridge.
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston.
ERNEST H. WILSON, of Jamaica Plain.
FRED A. WILSON, of Nahant.
* Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston.
COMMITTEES FOR 1924
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT
ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman
THOMAS ALLEN WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT CHARLES S. SARGENT
JOHN S. AMES THOMAS ROLAND
MISS MARIAN ROBY CASE, Chairman
MRS. BAYARD THAYER GEORGE C. THURLOW
Committee on Prizes
THOMAS ROLAND, Chairman
ERNEST H. WILSON ROBERT CAMERON
Committee on Exhibitions
THOMAS ALLEN, Chairman
W. N. CRAIG THOMAS ROLAND GEORGE F. STEWART
H. H. RICHARDSON
Committee on Library
CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER
Committee on Lectures and Publications
ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman
CHARLES S. SARGENT
Committee on Buildings
JOHN S. AMES, Chairman
FRED A. WILSON
Committee on Gardens
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, Chairman
MRS. FRANCIS B. CROWNINSHIELD CHRISTIAN VANDERVOET
Committee on George R. White Medal of Honor
CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman
THOMAS ROLAND WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT
Committee on Children's Gardens
JAMES WHEELER, Chairman
MISS MARIAN ROBY CASE MISS LOUISA HUNNEWELL
Committee on Plants and Flowers
WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman
WILLIAM H. JUDD DONALD McKENZIE
PETER ARNOTT GEORGE F. STEWART
Committee on Fruits
ALBERT R. JENKS, Chairman
JAMES METHVEN ANDREW K. ROGERS
Committee on Vegetables
WILLIAM N. CRAIG, Chairman
WALTER H. GOLBY EDWARD PARKER
Outstanding Events in the History of the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society was organized
February 24, 1829, at a meeting held in the insurance office
of Zebedee Cook, Jr., and at an adjourned meeting at the
same place on Tuesday, March 17. Gen. Henry A. S. Dear-
born, of Koxbury, was elected president. It was incorporated
by an act of the legislature approved by Governor Levi Lin-
coln on June 12, 1829.
The first books for the library were received by donation
from Robert Manning, one of the founders of the Society, in
1829. The same year the Society began buying important
books published in Europe. The first catalogue of the library
was printed in 1831, showing a total of 190 volumes Begin-
ning with 1847, $300 a year was appropriated for the library.
This appropriation was later increased.
It is interesting to note the expressed hope by the founders
of the Society as contained in the records, that "The Society
might at some day diffuse horticultural information through
a regularly published journal."
The first diploma was prepared in 1831. The present
elaborately engraved diploma was adopted in 1841.
A tract of land in Cambridge and Watertown, known as
Stone's Woods and also as Sweet Auburn, was purchased by
the Society in 1831 from George W. Brimmer, to be used for
establishing the cemetery which came to be known as Mt.
Auburn Cemetery. An act authorizing the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society to hold land for a rural cemetery was
approved by Governor Lincoln, June 23, 1831. This was the
first rural cemetery in the United States. The original plan
called for an experimental garden to be connected with the
cemetery, but this plan was soon abandoned. Consecration
services were held at Mt. Auburn, Saturday, September 24,
an address being delivered by the Hon. Joseph Story.
On June 22, 1833, the first vegetables tested at the experi-
mental garden were distributed to members of the Society.
At subsequent meetings other flowers and vegetables were
distributed at the Societv's hall. At the annual meeting
14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
held in Faneuil Hall, September 17, 18 and 19, elaborate
bouquets from the Society 's gardens were used for decoration.
Mt. Auburn Cemetery in 1835 was disposed of to a new
corporation, it having been found that the development of
horticulture and the management of the cemetery did not go
well together. It was agreed that one-fourth of the money
derived from the sale of lots in the cemetery should be paid
each year to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. This
arrangement has been continued to this day, a large amount
of money having been derived by the Society from this source.
The seal of the Society was adopted in 1841, with the legend
added in 1847.
The first tri-ennial festival of the Society was held in 1842,
when more than 200 persons sat down to an elaborate dinner,
the first occasion of the kind to which ladies were invited.
A building for the occupancy of the Society was completed
en School Street, in 1845. This hall cost $37,682.72.
The first special Rose Show was held by the Society in
The custom of having an inaugural meeting, with an ad-
dress by the president, was begun in 1850.
In 1860 the School Street building was sold for $69,459. In
1863 the Society purchased the Montgomery House, on Tre-
mont Street, for $101,000, and erected a building on the site
which brought the total cost, with the furnishings, to $246,889.
The beginning of the present collection of portraits and
busts was made at the Tremont Street building in 1861, when
the sum of $1,000 was appropriated for the purpose.
In June, 1873, a Rhododendron Show was held on Boston
Common and was one of the most notable events in the his-
tory of the Society. The exhibition resulted in a profit of
$1,565.28, which amount was invested by Mr. H. H. Hunne-
well, who had charge of the exhibition, in two bonds of the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.
The fourteenth session of the American Pomological Society
was held in Boston in 1873, by invitation of the Massachu-
setts Horticultural Society, and brought together one of the
largest assemblies of distinguished pomolo gists in the history
of New England.
The Society sent a large exhibition to the Centennial Ex-
position held at Philadelphia in 1876. It is recorded that the
16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
number of dishes of pears from Massachusetts was greater
than from all the other States together.
The semi-centennial anniversary of the Society was cele-
brated Friday, September 12, 1879, the oration being delivered
by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder.
The Tremont Street Building having proved inadequate to
meet the growing needs of the Society, was sold in 1900 for
$600,000. Plans for a new building had already been made,
and this building, the present Horticultural Hall, corner of
Massachusetts and Huntington Avenues, was dedicated in
November, 1901. The new building, which was designed by
Wheelwright & Haven, cost $515,000, including the land.
The first flower show in the new building was held May 29,
1901, although the structure was not fully completed It was
one of the most remarkable exhibitions ever staged in Boston,
and was carried out under the direction of Professor C. S. Sar-
gent, assisted by Miss Beatrix Jones of New York City.
In 1909 Mr. George Robert White, one of Boston's greatest
benefactors, gave the Society $7,500, with directions that the
interest should be used each year for a medal, to be known as
the George Robert White Medal of Honor, and to be awarded
yearly for eminent service in horticulture. Later a sister
of Mr. White gave $2,500 more, making a total of $10,000, the
interest of which is used for a medal made of purest gold,
which is considered the highest horticultural award in
An Italian Garden exhibition was given in 1912, which
attracted much attention, and was executed with remarkable
skill under the direction of John K. M. L. Farquhar and
The Society's second outdoor exhibition was held in 1917,
on Huntington Ave., and was a notable event, although bad
weather interfered with its success.
In 1920 Mr. Albert C. Burrage made monthly exhibits of
Orchid plants in flower, showing the plants as they came into
bloom throughout the year. These exhibitions attracted wide
Mr. Burrage arranged a special exhibition of wild flowers
and wild ferns in May 1922, which has been set down as in
some ways the most successful exhibition ever held in the
history of the Society, the attendance being 82,923.
The Best Apples for Massachusetts
DESSERT APPLES, FIRST CHOICE
Date of Harvest
Aug. 5 — 15
Aug. 25 — Sept.
Aug. 20— Sept. 15
10 Sept.— Oct.
Nov. — Feb.
Nov. — Feb.
Dec. — Apr.
Jan. — May
A SUPPLEMENTAL LIST OF DESSERT VARIETIES
Date of Harvest
Aug. 5 — 15
Date of Harvest
Aug. 1 — 15
Aug. 25— Sept. 10
Rhode Island Greening Oct. 5 — 15
Aug. 15 — Sept.
Sept. — Nov.
Oct. — Jan.
Oct. — Jan.
Jan. — May
Aug. 15— Sept. 10
Aug. 20— Sept. 15
Sept. — Dec.
Nov. — March
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Bate of Harvest
Aug. 5 — 15
Aug. 20— Sept.
Oct. — Jan.
Oct. — Jan.
Nov. — Feb.
Nov. — Apr.
Shrubs Recommended for Massachusetts
Forsythia intermedia specta-
Lonicera Maackii podocarpa
" spinosissima altaica
Spiraea van Houttei
Trees Recommended for Massachusetts
Malus ioensis, var. plena
Prunus serrulata sachalinensis
Roses Recommended for Massachusetts
Frau Karl Druschki
Mrs. John Laing
Red Letter Day
Jonkheer J. L. Mock
Mme. Leon Pain
Duchess of Wellington
Lady Alice Stanley
Hardy Perennials Recommended for
Prize for Native Trees Offered
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is offering a gold
medal to be awarded at the end of the year 1926 to the owner
of the finest native tree, a photograph of which is submitted
for competition, the tree to have a trunk diameter of at least
two feet, four feet above the ground, with size, general appear-
ance and evidence of care being taken into consideration in
making the award. This competition is open to all residents
of Massachusetts; owners of unusual specimens of American
trees are invited to correspond with the secretary if further
information is desired.
Survey of Trees in New England
During the past year an extensive survey of the trees of
New England has been made by the Massachusetts Horticul-
tural Society, and has brought to light much interesting
information. Apparently the biggest and in some ways the
most noteworthy Elm in New England, now that the famous
Washington Elm in Cambridge has fallen, seems to be the
Wethersfield Elm at Wethersfield, Ct. Although the exact
age of this tree is not known, there is little doubt but that it
was planted soon after the town was settled in 1634. This
tree at its base is fifty-five feet six inches in circumference, and
measures twenty-six feet four inches at a height of thirty-
nine inches above the ground. It is one hundred and twenty-
five feet high, and has a spread of one hundred and thirty-
seven feet. Although very massive, it is not wholly typical
of the American Elm, as it has six main branches, with twelve
large limbs at a distance of twenty-five feet from the ground.
The spreading branches themselves are as large as many trees,
one of them having a circumference of seventeen feet.
The tree has interesting associations. Many prominent
persons have found shelter beneath its branches, Washington
and Lafayette among them. Charles Wesley, the great re-
former, delivered a sermon while standing under this tree,
when he made a tour of the colonies in 1750.
The tree is valued so highly in Wethersfield that the town
has appropriated a liberal sum of money to preserve it for
future generations. Within the past few years nearly six
cords of wood in the form of broken or decayed limbs have
been cut away.
Another very notable New England tree which the Society's
survey shows to be in good condition is the Avery Oak at
Dedham. This tree, which stands eighty feet high and has
a spread of eighty-three feet, is especially interesting because
it is the original tree on the town seal of Dedham. This tree
is being kept in good condition by the Historical Society.
The survey shows that there is a second Washington Elm
22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
in Massachusetts. This tree stands at Palmer, and Washington
is supposed to have stood under it while speaking to the
residents of the town during the Revolutionary War.
New England is found to abound in magnificent Elms, many
of which are still in good condition, less damage having been
done by the Elm-tree beetle than had been feared a few years
ago, when beetle damage was heavy.
An unusually large number of remarkable Elm trees have
been found at Wayland, Mass. There are also many good
specimens in Lancaster, although some of the most beautiful
trees in that town have died.
The tallest tree in New England, so far as the Society has
found, is a huge American Elm at Conway, N. H., which
towers one hundred and fifteen feet into the air. Hatfield,
Mass., however, has an Elm with much larger lateral dimen-
sions, measuring one hundred and seventy-five feet from the
tips of the branches on one side straight through to the tips of
the branches on the other.
The Society has a record of a great Buttonwood tree in
Hartford, Conn., which is declared to be 331 years old, al-
though absolute data has not been obtained.
Probably the most historic Elm tree in the vicinity of
Boston, now that the Washington Elm is gone, is the Cushing
Elm at Hingham, under which the Rev. John Brown, of
Cohasset, delivered an eloquent sermon to a company of
English soldiers in the Revolutionary War.
Notable evergreen trees do not appear to be very numerous
in New England, but there is a Hemlock on the property of
Mrs. Sarah Blanchard at Wilmington, Mass., eighty-five feet
high, with a spread of sixty-five feet, which is believed to be
the largest in the state.
Danvers has a tree in the Preston White Pine which is
ninety-five feet high, while the Dr. Kane White Pine at
Brattleboro, Vt., has a spread of a hundred feet.
Among the most interesting fruit trees which appear in the
survey is the Governor Endicott Pear tree in Danvers, which
was planted about 1630, and which is now owned by Mr.
William C. Endicott, a Trustee of the Massachusetts Horti-
Another very old fruit tree is known as the Orange Pear
tree, and stands in the garden of Capt. C. H. Allen, in Salem.
SURVEY OF TREES IN NEW ENGLAND
Courtesy of the Arnold Arboretum
The Avery Oak at Dedham, Mass.
This tree, which still bears fruit, was brought over from
England in 1639, according to what seems to be authentic
records. Unfortunately, the tree needs immediate attention
if it is to be saved.
A great many other trees have been reported upon, and
many pictures have been collected by the Society, and are on
exhibition at Horticultural Hall.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
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Mr. John McLaren
To whom the George Robert White Medal of Honor %as been awarded
The announcement was made at the close of 1923 that the
award of the George Robert "White Medal of Honor for that
year had been made to Mr. John McLaren, superintendent of
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California.
A biography of Superintendent John McLaren or a history
of Golden Gate Park — in but a few minor details could they
differ. John McLaren has been more than a superintendent.
As a landscape architect he saw the opportunity to make one
masterpiece his life work, and that is the Golden Gate Park
of today, famous among the playgrounds of the world.
In 1887, when Superintendent McLaren took charge of the
park, it was little more than a waste of wind-blown sand
dunes. Thirty-six years of intelligent planning and unre-
mitting industry have realized a vision.
John McLaren was born near Stirling, Scotland, on Decem-
ber 20, 1846, the year in which the Bear Flag was raised at
Sonoma, with some thought of abandoning San Francisco as
At the age of 17 young McLaren took up the study of land-
scape gardening. His first training school was the Scotch
farm of his parents. After serving a long apprenticeship at
the Edinburgh Botanical Garden he set out for California
and came first to San Mateo, where he resided for a number
of years, and planted the large eucalyptus and pines now
growing along the highway and in private grounds. There
he met and married a daughter of the heather, the present
McLaren, upon taking charge of the park, found himself
in possession of a newly-planted strip of land, the Panhandle,
a conservatory and many acres of sand. There were no lakes
and few would have considered them a possibility.
The story of John McLaren's life and works since that
time is written in a book that he who runs may read. The
children's playground, the concert pavilion, Strawberry Hill
with Stow Lake and Huntington Falls, the Chain of Lakes
28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
and the flora of many lands are among its chapters. It is
painted in colors that surpass any words of description.
It was John McLaren who performed much of the wizardry
that caused the Marina to spring suddenly into beautiful
gardens as a setting for the Panama-Pacific Exposition.
Artists and architects found themselves dependent upon the
man who worked with the secrets of Nature.
McLaren is both author and authority. His book, "Gar-
dening in California ; Landscape and Flower, ' ' is the best in
Personality has taken the place of politics in the life of
McLaren as a public official. His political activity has been
in behalf of larger appropriations for Golden Gate Park.
John McLaren is regarded by San Franciscans in no less
a capacity than "father of Golden Gate Park," architect of
its crowning beauty.
History of the George Robert White Medal
America's Highest Horticultural Award
George Robert White of Boston presented to the Massa-
chusetts Horticultural Society in 1909 a fund, now amount-
ing to $10,000, the income to provide annually for a sub-
stantial gold medal to be awarded by the Trustees of the
Society to the man or woman, commercial firm or institution
in the United States or other countries that has done the most
in recent years to advance interest in horticulture in its broad-
est sense. The medal, designed by John Flanagan, is of coin
gold and weighs eight and a half ounces. It has been awarded
each year since its establishment to the following persons :
1909. Prof. Charles S. Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum,
Jamaica Plain, Mass.
1910. Jackson Thornton Dawson, well known and accomplished
plantsman of the Arnold Arboretum.
1911. Victor Lemoine of Nancy, France, originator of many of the
popular varieties of flowering plants to be found in the
gardens of today.
GEORGE ROBERT WHITE MEDAL OP HONOR 29
1912. Michael H. Walsh, Rose specialist of Woods Hole, Mass.,
originator of the Lady Gay Rambler Rose and many other
1913. The Park Commission of the City of Rochester, N. Y., in
recognition of its tasteful work in landscape planting.
1914. Sir Harry James Veitch of London, England, seedsman,
nurseryman and introducer and propagator of many desir-
able ornamental garden plants.
1915. Ernest Henry Wilson of Boston, for his botanical and horti-
cultural work in China and Japan, and the discovery of
many new varieties of flowering plants, shrubs and trees.
1916. William Robinson of London, England, for his educational
work in horticultural literature.
1917. Niels Ebbesen Hansen of Brookings, S. D., for the introduc-
tion of new varieties of plants and fruits in the North-
1918. Dr. Walter Van Fleet of Washington, D. C, for the pro-
duction of new varieties of Roses.
1919. Vilmorin-Andrieux et Cie., Paris, France, for the introduc-
tion of new varieties of plants and vegetables.
1920. George Forrest of England, for his work in the introduction
of garden plants from China.
1921. Mrs. Louisa Yeomans King of Alma, Mich., for her work in
1922. Albert C. Burrage of Boston, for advancing the interest in
1923. John McLaren of San Francisco, for his work in the develop-
ment of horticulture on the Pacific Coast.
Species for Which Mrs. Bayard Thayer Was Given a
The gold medal of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
was awarded September, 1923 to Mrs. Bayard Thayer of
Lancaster, Mass., for her work in preserving and populariz-
ing the newer Chinese Lilies. Mrs. Thayer's interest in these
Lilies has extended over the time which has been necessary
to develop one of the finest collections in America. She was
the first estate owner to recognize the value of such species
as Lilium regale, Lilium Thayerae, Lilium Sargentiae, and
Lilium Willmottiae. With the exception of Lilium regale
this group of Lilies has been lost from most of the gardens
in which bulbs were planted. Mrs. Thayer encouraged her
skillful superintendent, "William Anderson, to give these
Lilies special care and attention, the result being that they
have been saved for American gardens.
Special interest has been shown in the Lily which was
named by Mr. E. H. Wilson, the introducer for Mrs. Thayer.
This Lily was given special mention in the award by the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Lilium Thayerae is a
native of the Chino-Thibetan borderland, growing in a wild
and mountainous country at an altitude of 5000 feet or more.
It is occasionally cultivated in gardens. Mr. Wilson in his
description of the Lily says :
"It is occasionally cultivated in gardens and on tops of
stone and mud walls for its bulb, which being white is
esteemed as a vegetable. In the Min Valley I have seen
occasional plants above the city of Maochou to Sungpan
Ting. Also it grows in the valley of the upper Tung River
round the town of Romi-chango. In Shensi it appears to be
rare. It was first introduced to Italy by Pere Giraldi, who
in 1894 sent bulbs which flowered in the Botanic Gardens,
Florence, in June, 1895. In 1904 I sent bulbs to Messrs.
Veitch, by whom it was distributed under the name of 'L.
"In the winter of 1908-09, and again in 1910-11, I sent
bulbs to the Arnold Arboretum which were distributed in
America and England. This Lily grows among low shrubs
and grasses in open country, especially on steep mountain-
slopes, and is happiest on humus-clad boulders. It is fond
of leaf soil, good drainage and sunshine, and flowers in July.
Under cultivation it has proved reasonable, ripens seed in
32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
normal seasons, and is now fairly well established in a
number of gardens in England and a few in America."
Lilium Willmottiae grows wild over a considerable area
in central China but is nowhere common. It inhabits the
margins of thickets and woods in well-drained situations
where loam and an abundance of decaying leaves obtain.
The slender stem is not sufficiently strong to support the
weight of the pyramidate inflorescence, and the bushes
among which the plants grow assist in keeping the stem
The bulb is small, and it is surprising that it should be
capable of producing such a number of flowers even though
the plant is stem-rooting. The Chinese cook and eat the
bulb even as they do that of every other species of Lilium
that has a white bulb.
This lily was discovered in 1888 in western Hupeh by A.
Henry. In the winter of 1908-09, Wilson sent a small con-
signment of bulbs to the Arnold Arboretum. Some of these
bulbs were presented to Miss Willmott, Mrs. Bayard Thayer,
and other friends of the Arboretum.
In habit and shape of its flowers this Lily closes resembles
that named for Mrs. Thayer, but its stem is less rigid, the
leaves more lustrous,. and the flowers, dotted with black, are
larger and of a rich shade of apricot not easy to define,
The Henry Sargent Hunnewell Garden
In November, 1923, the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society voted the Society's Gold Medal to Mr. and Mrs.
Henry Sargent Hunnewell, of Natick, on recommendation
of the G-arden Committee. This committee, consisting of
William C. Endicott, Mrs. F. B. Crowninshield, and Mrs.
Bayard Thayer, report that the garden is of unusual interest
and excellence. It was brought into prominence last spring
when visited by the members of the American Rose Society
on their annual pilgrimage.
In 1890 the late Charles Eliot, son of Charles William Eliot,
President Emeritus of Harvard College, drew plans for the
ornamental part of the Hunnewell estate. The house was
designed and built by Mr. Hunnewell himself, a well-known
architect, and was first occupied in 1891. The Cedars con-
sists of about 400 acres, a large part of which is woodland,
and is a very beautiful place, particularly so from the fact
that there is little that is artificial about it.
Few trees have been planted, but the work done by Mr.
Hunnewell consisted in cutting down a part of the forest
trees to produce a more park-like effect, and in substituting
in their place conifers and ornamental shrubs, of which there
are many remarkable specimens, particularly Taxus cuspi-
data, Rhododendron maximum, Hollies and Azaleas. By cut-
ting out trees long alleys give lovely views.
In 1915 the Rose Garden was laid out under the direction
of Mrs. Harriet R. Foote of Marblehead. While this garden
is not very large, it is very perfect of its kind. The standards
are unusually fine and the different varieties of Roses are
many and well chosen.
New books added to the Library during the year 1923 in-
clude the following:
American rose annual, 1923.
Anderson, 0. G., and Roth, F. C. Insecticides and fungicides.
Arnold, Augusta Foote. The sea-beach at ebb-tide.
Bahr, Fritz. Fritz Bahr's Commercial floriculture.
Bailey, L. H. Plant-breeding. New edition, revised by Arthur W.
Bailey, L. H., editor. The cultivated evergreens.
Baker, William M. Forestry for profit.
Barnes, Parker T. House plants and how to grow them.
Barron, Leonard. Lawn making.
Brown, Clark W. Gladiolus nomenclature.
Ohampe, R. M. The gladiolus for profit.
Cockerham, K. L. A manual for spraying.
Davis, K. C. Horticulture; a text book for high schools and nor-
Duryea, Minga Pope. Gardens in and about town.
Eley, Charles. Gardening for the twentieth century.
Graton, Louis. Intensive strawberry culture.
Harding, Mrs. Edward. Peonies for the little garden. (French
Hardy, M. E. The geography of plants.
Hedrick, U. P., and others. The pears of New York.
Hilborn, Ernest. The amateur's guide to landscape gardening.
Hottes, Alfred C. A little book of annuals.
Hottes, Alfred C. A little book of perennials.
Hottes, Alfred C. Practical plant propagation.
Kains, M. G. Plant propagation; greenhouse and nursery practice.
Kew. Royal botanic gardens. Bulletin of miscellaneous informa-
King, Mrs. Francis. The little garden.
King, Mrs. Francis. Variety in the little garden.
Lyman, Florence Van Fleet. Old-fashioned songs of a house and
McFarland, J. Horace. The rose in America.
Macself, A. J. Alpine plants.
Macself, A. J. Delphiniums and how to excel with them.
LIBRARY ACCESSIONS 35
Macself, A. J. Hardy perennials.
Macwatt, John. The Primulas of Europe.
Maxwell, Sir Herbert. Flowers; a garden note book, with sug-
gestions for growing the choicest kinds.
Methuen, A. An alpine a b c.
Mitchell, Sydney B. Gardening in California.
Morris, Robert. Nut growing.
National rose society. The rose annual for 1922.
Nuttall, G. Clarke. Beautiful flowering shrubs.
Outram, James. In the heart of the Canadian Rockies.
Payne, C. Harman. The history and later history of the chrysan-
Peck, Charles Lathrop. The school book of forestry.
Peck, Charles Lathrop. Trees as good citizens.
Peets, Elbert. Practical tree repair.
Piper, C. V., and Oakley, R. A. Turf for golf courses.
Pyle, Robert. How to grow roses.
Ridgway, Robert. Color standards and color nomenclature.
Rockwell, F. F. Gardening under glass.
Rohde, Eleanour Sinclair. The old English herbals.
Ruffo, Gioacchino. Le palmi di Villa Lucia.
Schultz, Ellen D. 500 wild flowers of San Antonio and vicinity.
Silva-Tarouca, Ernst, and Schneider, Camillo. Unsere Freiland-
Simmons, James Raymond. The historic trees of Massachusetts.
Stager, Walter. Tall bearded iris.
Standardized plant names.
Tabor, Grace. Making the grounds attractive with shrubbery.
Tansley, A. G. Practical plant ecology.
Thompson, Homer C. Vegetable crops.
Tilton, George H. The fern lover's companion.
Townsend, Charles Wendell. Sand dunes and salt marshes.
Trelease, William. Plant materials of decorative gardening.
Unwin, W. J. The sweet pea and its culture.
Waugh, Frank A. Dwarf fruit trees; their propagation, pruning,
and general management.
Waugh, Frank A. Textbook of landscape gardening.
Weaver, John E. The ecological relations of roots.
White, Edward A. The principles of floriculture.
White, Edward A. Principles of flower arrangement.
Wright, Richardson. Flowers for cutting and decoration.
Wright, Richardson, editor. House and garden's Book of gardens.
The following periodicals from many parts of the world
will be found in the Library of the Massachusetts Horticul-
Agricultural Gazette of Canada
Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales
American Fern Journal
American Nut Journal
Anales de la Sociedad Rural Argentina
Annales de la Societe horticole, vigneronne et forestiere de l'Aube
Annals of Botany
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Arnold Arboretum. Bulletin of Popular Information
Brooklyn Botanic Garden Leaflets
Brooklyn Botanic Garden Eecord
Bulletin de la Societe d'Horticulture d'Orleans et du Loiret
Bulletin de la Societe d'Horticulture et de Viticulture d'Epernay
Bulletin mensuel de la Societe d'Horticulture, de Viticulture et
d'Etudes agronomiques du Puy-de-D6me
Bulletin of the American Dahlia Society
Bulletin of the Garden Club of America
Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club
Bullettino dell a R. Societa Toscana di Orticultura
Canadian Field Naturalist
Curtis's Botanical Magazine
Deutsche Obst-u. Gemiisebau-Zeitung
CURRENT PERIODICALS 37
Experiment Station Record
Farm and Garden
Farm and Home
Flowering Plants of South Africa
Fruit World of Australasia.
Gardeners' Chronicle of America
Guide to Nature
House and Garden
Institute of Agriculture, Rome:
International Crop Report
International Review of Agricultural Economics
International Review of the Science and Practice of Agricul-
Ireland. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction:
Journal de la Societe d'Horticulture de France
Journal d'Horticulture suisse
Journal of Agricultural Research
Journal of Botany
Journal of Economic Entomology
Journal of Forestry
Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science
Journal of the Anold Arboretum
38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Victoria
Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society
Journal of the Japanese Horticultural Society
Journal of the Minister of Agriculture
Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society
Lyon Horticole et Horticulture Nouvelle
Moller's Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung
Monthly Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, State of Cali-
New England Homestead
New Zealand Journal of Agriculture
Quarterly Journal of Forestry
Revue des Eaux et Forets
Rural New Yorker
South African Gardening and Country Life
Union of South Africa. Journal of the Department of Agriculture
Zeitschrift fur Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau
Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Gallenkunde
The Best Uses of Fruit and
When conditions favorable for growth and fruit bearing
surround the tree one may expect to be rewarded with an
excellent crop of fruit. Then questions arise concerning the
harvesting and subsequent handling of the fruit and its best
uses in the home and family. It is with these problems that
we propose to deal briefly this afternoon.
In discussing these problems we shall have the apple in
mind, though much that will be said applies also to other
fruits and we may mention other fruits specifically from time
Several criteria for the time of harvest have been proposed.
One is the color of the seeds in apples and pears. It is not
very valuable because we may not want to destroy the fruit
and more especially because it is not very reliable. With some
varieties the seeds color before the flesh is really ripened and
with others not until afterward. Yet it is not without value
and may be noted with profit.
The character most frequently observed as a mark of ripe-
ness is color. When an apple is red we say it is ripe. And
to a less degree this applies to certain other fruits. Now the
red color is a so-called sap color, and is developed by sun-
light as soon as the fruit has developed to a certain stage and
may or may not mark the proper time for harvesting. It
does in a rough way especially with winter apples but it is
not the best criterion.
All fruits are in their immature stages some shade of green,
varying with the type and variety. One of the best indica-
tions of time of harvest, especially with early fruits that are
intended for early consumption, is the change of this green
color to some shade of yellow. It may be a little difficult with
highly colored apples to tell when this yellowing begins, but
usually on the shady side of the fruit it shows through enough
* A lecture delivered at Horticultural Hall, Boston, Nov. 3, 1923, by Prof.
J. K. Shaw of the Massachusetts State College of Agriculture.
40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
to see. Winter fruit may be necessarily gathered before this
Excepting winter apples and pears probably the best in-
dication of the proper time of harvest is the softening of the
fruit and the development of the flavor characteristic of the
variety. When this change appears the decay of the fruit
soon follows. I do not mean by this the soft rots, but the
physiological breakdown accompanied by the loss of flavor.
Soft rots are caused by certain organisms that rarely gain
access to the fruit except through a break in the skin. Hence
the importance of protecting the fruit from insects and dis-
eases and of careful handling to avoid breaking the skin. The
importance of the last can hardly be over-estimated if one
wishes to keep fruits as long as possible.
STORAGE OF FRUIT
When the fruit is harvested the next question that arises
is that of the best condition of storage. With apples that are
to be kept as long as possible one should put them as soon as
possible in a temperature as near freezing as practicable.
Apples freeze at a temperature of about 28 or 29 degrees
Fahrenheit. As it is impossible to control the temperature of
a storage room exactly, it is the common practice to keep
storage rooms under artificial refrigeration around 32 degrees.
This allows a margin of safety of about 4 degrees. It is a
question if apples kept at this low temperature before becom-
ing fully ripe ever attain as high quality as those held at a
higher temperature, say around 40 to 45 degrees. Probably
the latter temperature is better for winter fruit, sound and
whole, except where it is desired to hold the fruit as long as
possible. Apples may not be harmed seriously by freezing
provided they do not fall below about 25 degrees and are
allowed to thaw gradually and without being disturbed. Re-
peated freezing and thawing however may be harmful.
Another condition essential to holding fruit in the best con-
dition is a reasonable amount of humidity of the atmosphere
of the storage room. If the air is too dry the fruit will shrivel,
especially russet varieties, and if it is too moist, molds and
mildews are apt to develop.
It is unfortunate that modern dwellings do not afford a
place favorable for keeping fruit. A cellar with a furnace
USES OF FRUITS 41
is too warm. Wherever possible a cellar ought to have a room
insulated by walls and ceilings filled with shavings or in
some other manner and with provision for admitting outside
air when it is cold and shutting it out when it is warm.
Dwellers in flats and apartments are compelled to purchase
fruit in small quantities for immediate consumption.
Almost all fruits may absorb bad odors when kept where
such are present. Some varieties are more likely than others
to do this. Comparatively little is known about this but they
should be avoided as far as possible.
Apples in storage are subject to certain diseases. The most
serious of these is apple scald. This develops only in green
varieties or on the uncolored cheek of those that are more
or less red. Its development is favored by picking the apples
too soon and by confining them closely as in a tight package
or practically air tight cold storage rooms. It is not apt to
be serious where apples are allowed to mature well on the
trees and kept in small open packages in a cool house cellar.
Recent investigations have shown that it can be entirely pre-
vented by wrapping each apple in paper that has been treated
with certain oils. Such paper is on the market and is used
quite extensively especially by Pacific Coast growers.
The so-called Baldwin spot, a physiological disease affecting
Baldwins and some other varieties sometimes develops in
storage, though probably in all cases the trouble starts before
the fruit is picked. No effective remedy is known.
Occasionally the apple scab develops in storage. This is
seen only on varieties naturally susceptible to the disease and
is doubtless present though not noticeable when the fruit is
picked. The remedy is thorough spraying in the orchard.
THE BEST VARIETIES
Preference of certain varieties over others is largely a per-
sonal affair. One person likes a certain variety or type of
fruit and another prefers something else. Some of these
likes and dislikes are well founded and others are mere
notions that would yield to further real knowledge of
varieties. There exists an idea that eastern apples are better
in quality but not as attractive in appearance as those from
the Pacific Coast. This may be true in a general way, but
of course it does not hold in all cases. There are remarkablv
42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
handsome apples grown in the east and some western apples
are of high quality. The principal reason for the reputed
poor quality of western fruit is because it is often over-ripe
before it gets into the consumer's hands. In order to get
high color it is allowed to hang to the tree until it is well
ripened and with the long journey and divers sorts of hand-
ling it is past its prime when it comes to the consumer.
Boston and Massachusetts generally is noted for its pref-
erence for red varieties. Green or yellow apples do not find
a ready market here. Yet there is no reason why a red variety
should be better than one of some other color. But it is per-
haps not worth while to attempt to overcome this notion. If
Boston insists on having red apples the grower will try to
meet the requirement.
Nor is there any real reason why a yellow fleshed peach
should be any better than a white fleshed one. It may be
more pleasing to the eye. The white fleshed varieties as a
class are hardier in bud than the yellow varieties and for this
reason the grower prefers them. If they sold as well prob-
ably the Massachusetts peach grower would produce few
Flower Exhibitions to Be Held at
Horticultural Hall in 1924
March 27 — 30. Exhibition of Spring
Bulbs and Flowers.
May 8 — 11. Orchid Exhibition given by
the American Orchid Society.
June 7 — 8. Rhododendron, Azalea and
June 21 — 22. Peony Exhibition.
June 28 — 29. Rose, Strawberry and Sweet
August 15 — 17. Gladiolus Exhibition. In
conjunction with the annual exhibition
of the New England Gladiolus Society.
August 30 — 31. Exhibition of the prod-
ucts of Children's Gardens.
Sept. 13 — 14. Dahlia Exhibition. In con-
junction with the annual exhibition of
the New England Dahlia Society.
Oct. 24 — 26. Autumn Exhibition of plants,
Flowers, Fruits and Vegetables.
The Late Jackson T. Dawson
Memorial to Jackson Dawson
A movement has been started to create a memorial of some
kind to the late Jackson T. Dawson, for many years super-
intendent of the Arnold Arboretum, and one of the country's
most noted horticulturists. The memorial committee consists
of Thomas Roland, Nahant, Mass. ; F. R. Pierson, Tarrytown,
N. Y. ; W. A. Manda, South Orange; N. J. ; S. J. Goddard,
Framingham, Mass. ; Fred A. Wilson, Nahant, Mass. ; Ernest
H. Wilson, Arnold Arboretum.
This committee has issued the following notice, which is
being widely distributed :
"The memory of Jackson Thornton Dawson deserves per-
petuation before those who knew and loved him are replaced by
others who will not have the stimulus of personal recollection.
Jackson Dawson was a great man in horticulture, a foremost
propagator of woody plants in our country and a pioneer in
the field of hybridization of woody plants ; a welcome com-
panion and visitor among us ; and possessed of a personality
which was impressive, and which we should be glad to recog-
nize in some form of permanent memorial. For this purpose a
committee has been organized and the wishes of the present
generation, who knew Jackson Dawson, can be realized.
"The tribute will take the form of a fund placed with the
trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society; the
interest to be used for prizes, lectures and medals, or, as the
trustees may direct, to commend and encourage the science
and practice of hybridization and propagation of hard-wooded
plants. It was in this field that Jackson Dawson excelled,
and it is here that he would choose to see encouragement given.
"We invite all who appreciated the man and his great work
to subscribe to this memorial."
Checks should be made out to "The Jackson T. Dawson
Memorial," and forwarded to Thomas Roland, Treasurer,
Propagation of Trees and Shrubs
The raising of trees from seed is the natural way of pro-
pagating them. Nature shows us that, and employs many
agents to carry out her designs. In the first place, seeds drop
from the trees to the ground and are covered by the falling
leaves, or by the grass and weeds, which keep them from the
drying winds until they germinate. They are scattered by
the winds, and many fall in the crevices of rocks, and on good
ground, or other favorable situations; they are floated down
rivers and brooks and are left in the rich mud along the
banks. They are carried many miles from their original
station by the birds ; and the larger seeds, such as acorns and
nuts, are carried away by squirrels, mice, and other animals,
and buried for future use as food, and a great many of these
germinate. I think that for many rows of fine oaks and
hickories along the boundary walls of old farms we are in-
debted to the planting of the squirrels. While we can learn
much from nature, we can also improve upon her methods,
and supply ourselves with trees in a more economical way.
It is true, if nature is left to herself, and men stop destroying,
she will soon cover up the ruins made by man, for she sows
with a liberal hand ; but there are so many enemies at work,
and so many conditions to take into consideration, that only
a small percentage of the seed that drops to the ground germi-
nates ; possibly not one in a thousand comes to maturity. For
this reason we cannot afford to raise our forests as nature
The sowing of tree seed where the trees are to remain is poor
economy, and should not be undertaken except where it is
impossible to plant ; such sowing should be the exception, not
the rule. A much greater quantity of seed is required; it
necessitates more labor; more spots have to be replanted, and
it is not generally satisfactory in its results. The soil and
* A paper by the late Jackson T. Dawson reprinted from the Transactions of
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for 1885.
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS
situation are so varied that the seed cannot be properly cared
for, as it can be in the compact form of frames, seed beds, or
nursery rows, where they can be protected from insects or
The first consideration in seed-sowing is to determine what
you want to plant ; the second, to procure your seed as fresh
as possible ; the third, to prepare a suitable soil and situation
to plant them in ; the fourth, to know what depth to cover
them and how long to wait for the seed to come up. It would
be impossible for me at this time to go through the whole list
of trees and shrubs that will well stand the climate of New
England; therefore I will confine myself to those that are
most useful. Except in a few cases given for the sake of
illustration, those named in the following list are all hardy in
the vicinity of Boston, and are representatives of most of the
families of trees that will stand our climate : —
Axer r ah rum,
1 1 saccharinum,
Sugar ' l
1 ' platanoides,
Norway ' '
JEsadus Hipp o cast anum,
Tree of Heaven,
Amelanchier canadensis and
' ' lent a,
Black or Cherry Birch,
' ' nigra,
Red or River
' ' alba,
English White "
Western Shell-bark Hickory,
Nettle tree or Hackberry,
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Black or Pear Thorn,
Downy ' '
Kentucky Coffee tree,
Yellow Cucumber tree,
Tupelo, or Sour Gum,
Balm of Gilead,
Amoor Cork tree,
Wild Black Cherry,
Swamp White Oak,
American Mountain Ash,
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS
Viburnum lent ago,
Ju nip e rus Virginia n a,
American Arbor Vitae,
Rocky Mountain Silver Fir,
Japanese Silver Fir,
Pseudotsuga taxi folia,
Serbian ' '
1 ' Abies,
Norway ' '
1 ' sylvestris,
As you perceive, the majority of this list are American
trees. I know there are many foreign trees that will do well
in New England, but, without being partial, I must say I
believe that with few exceptions American trees are the
best in the American climate, both for use and profit.
SOIL AND SITUATION
In selecting a place for the seed beds the soil for all large
seeds should, if possible, be a deep, rich, mellow loam, avoid-
ing, if possible, all thin, gravelly soils or heavy clays. The
soil should be well manured with good, rotten manure, one
year old, and ploughed or trenched from twelve to fifteen
50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
inches deep, and well pulverized with a harrow. All coarse
stones, quitch-grass, or other rubbish, should be raked off so
as to have the land in the finest condition possible. If the
land is full of weeds it would be well to manure heavily and
plant one year with crops that would be well cultivated ; or to
plough it frequently during one season, so that it may be as
clean as possible when the time comes for sowing.
If there is anything that tries one's patience, it is attempt-
ing to grow seedlings in a soil that is already full of weed
seed. The land should be well sheltered from the north and
west winds, either by a hedge or fence. If it is springy or
low it should be well drained. If the seeds are to be sown
in beds they should be laid out five feet wide, with an alley
or pathway two and a half feet wide ; this will give ample
room to work the beds from both sides. The beds should be
raked fine, and if to be sown broadcast they will then be
ready for the seed.
A great many people prefer to sow broadcast ; but I think
that method requires more labor and care in weeding. I
prefer to sow in rows nine inches apart across the bed, — espe-
cially if there are a large number of varieties, or only a
limited number of plants are wanted, — or in long nursery
rows eighteen inches apart if to be worked by hand, or from
two and a half to three feet if to be cultivated by horse-
power. The reason I prefer the short rows is that in beds
so planted you can keep the soil well stirred between them,
which you cannot well do when sown broadcast; they are
also easier to shade and water, if necessary, than the long
nursery rows, and in the fall they are much more easily
SOWING THE SEED
The seeds should never be sown when the ground is wet,
or when it is raining; the soil at the time of sowing should
be neither wet nor dry, but in such condition that it can be
raked without clogging. If sown when wet the soil is apt
to bake hard, and a great many seeds will scarcely come
through, while, on the other hand, if the soil is too dry the
seed is apt to work out unless covered deeper than is desir-
A supply of water should always be at hand ready to use
PROPAGATION OF TREES AXD SHRUBS 51
during dry weather on all light-rooted plants ; but for large,
deep-rooted plants this is unnecessary; except in protracted
droughts. It is also well to have a number of light lath
screens to shelter the most delicate plants from the hot sun.
Having the ground well prepared, and all else necessary, we
can begin sowing as soon as we can get the seed. If in the
fall, we begin with the oaks, as acorns do not long retain
their vitality, out of the ground. Neither does the seed of
horse chestnut, chinquapin, hickory, or beech. To insure good
success these must all be planted, or put in boxes of earth, as
soon as possible.
If sown broadcast the nuts should be scattered thinly and
evenly over the bed. pressed down with a light wooden roller,
or the back of a spade, and covered a little more than the
diameter of the seed. — which would be nearly an inch for
beech, chinquapin, and oak. and from one to two inches for
hickory, black walnut, butternut, and horse chestnut. If
the same seeds are sown in drills they should be from two
to three inches deep, and from one to two inches apart in
the row. If not pressed down they will need from half an
inch to an inch more covering than those pressed down.
Some prefer to make shallow drills with a plough and sow
the nuts very thickly: this will give a great many more
plants to a given space, but they will not be so strong.
The Maples, with the exception of Acer nibrwm and Acer
saccharinum (these two species ripen their fruit in May and
June), should be sown as soon as possible after gathering,
and, whether in drills or broadcast, should not be covered
more than twice their diameter. If covered too deep they
sprout and rot, not having strength enough to break through
a great depth of soil. If maple seed is allowed to get thor-
oughly dry, and is kept so until spring, very few, if any,
will come up until the second year; while, if sown as soon
as gathered and subjected to a good freezing, the greater
portion will come up the following spring ; though a few
may wait until the second year.
The Ash (Fraxinus) must also be sown as soon after
gathering as possible, if wanted to come up the first year.
The Carpinus (Hornbeam) and the Ostrya (Hop-Hornbeam),
unless sown in the autumn, will not come up until the second
year. The Xyssa (Tupelo), Cornus florida, Amelanchier
52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
canadensis (Shad-bush), Celtis occidentalism the viburnums
and thorns, seldom come until the second year, although
there are a few exceptions, as some varieties will come if
exposed to freezing, while of others not a seed will germi-
nate even if frozen. The plum, peach, apple, and pear never
come up evenly the first year unless the seed has been
frozen or kept in boxes of moist earth.
A great mar^ roses will not come up the first year, even
after having been frozen, although the seed of hybrids will,
if frozen for a week or two, come up in less than a month.
The Tulip Tree invariably takes two years, and, as the pro-
portion of good seed is as one to ten, it should be sown very
thickly to insure even an ordinary crop. I find a good plan,
which saves much time and labor, is to take some good-sized
boxes, and fill with seed and fine sand in alternate layers ;
burying the box in a well-sheltered place and leaving it there
one season, lifting out the sand in the spring and sowing
the seed thickly in rows, and covering lightly.
Such seeds as those of Cercis canadensis Gleditsia
triacanthos, CJadrastis tinctoria, and Gymnocladus dioica,
being very hard, should have boiling water poured over
them, and then stand for twenty-four hours, when they
may be passed through a sieve, the mesh of which corres-
ponds to the size of the seeds to be operated upon. All those
not passing through the sieve may be considered fit for
sowing, while the rest should be treated to another hot bath
until they have all swollen to the required size. If sown dry
they will keep coming up a few at a time for a year or two.
The Ailanthus, Catalpa, Morus, Platanus, Birches, and
Alders are best sown in spring, as soon as the ground is dry
enough to work. The ground should be very fine, and,
whether in beds, broadcast, or in drills, the seed should be
very lightly covered ; and if a slight screen or shade were
used it would be of great benefit to the young seedlings
until they had made the second or third rough leaf, when the
shade could gradually be dispensed with.
The White and Scarlet Maple, the Elms, and Betida nigra
ripen their seed in early summer, and should be sown in
freshly prepared beds as soon as gathered. At this time of
the year the weather is often quite warm and dry, therefore
these summer-sown seeds should be carefully attended to as
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 53
regards watering, and possibly light shade should be given.
Where a large amount is planted, and no screens are at
hand, birch brush laid thinly over the bed is a great help.
If well taken care of they will make plants from six to
twelve inches high the same season. I would say, before
going further, that my rule is always to cover seed sown out
of doors in any ordinary loamy earth a little more than
their own diameter, and if very light and sandy nearly twice
as deep, but if the soil is a clay, as lightly as possible ; and it
makes no difference whether broadcast or in drills. I know
there are a few trees whose seed will come up if covered
quite deep, but they are exceptions, not the rule.
The Magnolia should not be sown out of doors in this
climate before the 20th of May, as it does not do well if
sown when the ground is cold. The Holly (Ilex opaca) is
the slowest to germinate. Treated like other seeds, a few —
say one in a thousand — will come up in the first year, a few
hundreds the second year, and the remainder the third year.
Such has been my experience. The Black Alder takes two
Such seeds as those of Magnolia, Rose, Mountain Ash,
Crataegus, Celastrus, Evonymus, and Viburnum, which are
inclosed in a fleshy pericarp or pulp, where space is of
account, and also for convenience of sowing, I macerate in
water at seventy or eighty degrees for one or two weeks,
when they may be washed out and sown before they are
thoroughly &vy. This often helps germination, and more in
the magnolia than any other plant I know. If the magnolia
is sown when gathered, there is an oil in the pulp that sur-
rounds the seed, which, as soon as it begins to rot, seems to
penetrate the seed and make it rancid.
I have frequently noticed that of the seed of the magnolia,
that was not washed clean, few germinated; the pulp, in
rotting, so soured the soil that it became full of fungus,
which damped off many of the young plants, necessitating
their removal to fresh soil to save them ; while of those
washed and sown under the same circumstances all came up
and grew well. Of course this may not occur in nature,
where the seed is exposed to the air and weather, or eaten by
the birds and voided ; but I am speaking of artificial cultiva-
tion. When magnolia seed is to be sown out of doors in
54 MASSACHUSETTS PIORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
New England it is best, after washing it out, to put it in
pots or boxes of sand, — that is, in alternate layers of sand
and seed, — and place it in a frame or cellar, where it does not
freeze, until the time of sowing in May. This is a good way
to keep seeds for which we may have no place prepared, or
which may arrive in late fall or winter, when it is impos-
sible to get them into the ground. Very often it is more
convenient to put seeds away in this manner until spring,
than to sow in the fall ; but it will not answer for seeds which
When seeds are sown in the fall it is well, as soon as the
ground is frozen, to cover the beds or rows with a light
covering of hay, pine needles, or leaves ; which will keep the
ground from heaving, and the heavy spring rains from wash-
ing up the seeds. If closely looked after, the covering may
be left on until the seed shows signs of germination, which,
in the case of large nuts, will be in June, when it should be
carefully removed; this will also save a great amount of
All seed beds and rows should be kept free from weeds
and, except where sown broadcast, as soon as up the ground
should be hoed or cultivated frequently ; this causes the
young plants to push with greater vigor, and makes them
better able to withstand drought. If the weather becomes
very warm and dry the beds or rows of young seedlings
should be well watered once or twice a week, — not by a slight
sprinkling on the surface, but by a good thorough soaking,
wetting the ground six or eight inches in depth. After the
1st of September the waterings may be discontinued, to allow
the plants to ripen up their growth.
At the approach of winter all young seedlings that were
sown in drills will stand better if a plough is run between
them throwing a furrow against the stems, so as to cover
them several inches deep ; this keeps the young plants from
heaving with the frost, and also keeps the water and ice from
settling around the young stems, which often causes great
injury. Those sown broadcast should have a slight covering
of hay or leaves, as soon as the ground is frozen, which is
usually from the 25th of November to the 1st of December
in this vicinity.
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 55
SECOND YEAR'S TREATMENT
About the first or second week in April the covering should
be removed, the young trees carefully taken up, and the tap
roots cut well back; the cuts should be clean and smooth,
so they will quickly callous and send forth plenty of young
fibres, which would take some time if the cuts were not
smooth. If any of the tops are crooked they should be cut
back to a good strong eye ; this will cause them to make a
\Yhen taking up the young trees, they should not be ex-
posed to drying winds, or hot sun. even for a few minutes,
but as soon as taken up they should be tied in bundles, and
the roots well sprinkled with water, and covered with a mat.
or piece of old bagging, and kept moist until they are
planted. There is no doubt that a great many failures in
tree planting could be traced to the drying up of the roots
before planting, and it has often been a wonder to me how
some trees grew at all. considering the treatment they
Having a good piece of land well prepared, either by
trenching or ploughing, mark out rows three feet apart
with a spade or plough ; if with a plough go twice in a
furrow, which will usually make the drills deep enough for
trees one year old, and, if they are to remain only one year,
one foot apart will do for the larger growing kinds, and six
inches for the smaller ones ; if to remain a longer period a
much greater distance will be required.
In transplanting trees the roots should be well spread and
the soil worked well in about them, and well firmed with the
feet. Our seasons for planting are often so short that we
have to plant in all kinds of weather, though it is best not to
plant when the ground is wet, if it can be avoided. The best
time is when the soil is dry enough to crumble easily; it can
then be worked among the finest roots, even if there are a
great many of them, by taking hold of the tree and giving it
three or four good shakes as the soil is being spread around
the root : but it is hard work to get it among the roots when
it is wet and pasty. After planting, weeds should never be
allowed to get a foothold in the nursery, but it should be
50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
cultivated at least once every two weeks, and all weeds cut
out with a hoe between the plants. This will help the tree
to withstand a long drought much better than it otherwise
would, and at no great cost.
At the end of the second year almost all deciduous trees,
if for forest planting, will be as large as it is profitable to
plant in large quantities. If wanted for ornamental pur-
poses they will need to be transplanted at least every two or
three years, and carefully pruned into proper shape until
they have reached the desired size. If often transplanted
they may be successfully removed when from fifteen to
eighteen, or even twenty feet in height ; though I believe
that vigorous young trees, from one to three feet high, when
set out where they are to remain, will make much finer speci-
mens if soil, preparation, and care be equal.
The Conifers, such as Pine, Spruce, Larch, Cedar, and
Hemlock require much more attention and care to grow from
seed than any other class of trees, and many of the finest kinds
it is impracticable to raise out of doors in our New England
climate, though the common ones with care and attention
may be raised quite successfully. The ground for these seeds
should be a light, rich loam, deep and well pulverized, or, if
not rich, made so with a good dressing of well-decomposed
manure. The beds should be laid off five feet wide, and the
alleys three feet. Along both sides of the beds, at intervals
of five or six feet, drive a row of small posts that will rise
six or eight inches above the surface of the beds. The beds
should be a few inches higher than the paths, so that water
will not stand on them.
The situation should be as sheltered as possible both from
the mid-day sun and drying winds ; the north or east side of
a hedge or fence is a favorable position. The beds being
all prepared and raked very fine, as soon as the weather
becomes settled — say from the 10th to the 20th of May — the
seed may be sown thinly, in rows six inches apart, across
the beds, or broadcast, and slightly covered, — certainly not
more than twice their own diameter. The sowing in rows is
most convenient in working them, both in the way of keeping
the beds clean and stirring the soil among the young plants.
If sown broadcast they should be lightly raked in and the
bed rolled with a light wooden roller. I would say here
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 57
that all seeds sown during warm, dry weather are much
benefited by having the ground lightly rolled over them.
The sowing being completed, place on the post before
mentioned lath screens made the width of the bed, with the
laths not more than an inch apart. This will screen the
plants from the sun and in part protect them from the
birds, which often pick up the young seedlings that are just
breaking ground. If no laths are handy the seed beds can
be covered with pine, hemlock, or cedar branches, quite
thickly at first; but the beds must be watched carefully, and
as soon as the young plants begin to appear the branches
should be gradually removed, until only enough are left to
slightly shade the young plants, and these should be raised
some inches above the plants. It is a good plan where pine
needles are plentiful to cover the seed bed thinly between the
rows with them; this keeps down the weeds, saves much
watering, and keeps the soil from washing or baking. If
the ground is very dry at the time of sowing they will re-
quire a slight watering ; otherwise they will not need it. In
my experience there are few seeds that require so little water
as those of conifers during germination.
The critical time with young conifers is the first three
months of their existence, until they have made the crown
bud; after that time there is very little danger, but until
then extreme watchfulness is necessary; a great quantity
of rain or a scorching sun will often prove fatal to thousands.
Stirring the soil after heavy rains, and tilting the screens
as soon as the sun is gone from them, or sifting dry soil
amongst the over- wet beds of seedlings, is of great benefit.
After the muggy weather of August is past they will require
very little care the rest of the year. At the approach of
cold weather they are best protected by a slight covering
between the rows, and a few pine branches or a little
meadow hay spread over the tops of the young plants will
keep them in good condition until spring.
The Pines, such as the Scotch, Austrian, and Red, should
not stand more than one year in the seed bed without trans-
planting, unless sown very thinly. The "White, Black, and
Norway Spruces will hardly be fit to transplant until the
end of the second season. The Larch makes better plants if
transplanted at one year, but will stand two if thinly sown.
58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The Silver Fir, Balsam Fir, Hemlock, and others of that
section may stand in the seed bed two years, while the
Arbor Vitae should be transplanted after the first season. The
seeds of the Juniperus and Taxus, of all species, do not germi-
nate until the second year, and it is well to treat them as I
have recommended for all slow-growing* seeds. The Ginkgo,
if fresh, will come up the first year, though I have had them
lying in the ground two years. The Pinus Cembra and other
Stone Pines will lie in the ground until the second year,
though a few may come up the first.
The seeds of the Conifers, with the exception of the Silver
Firs, will, if kept in a cool, dry place, retain their germi-
nating powers for a number of years, and even under adverse
circumstances. A few years ago we had some branches of
Pinus contort a sent us, which had the cones of six years
upon them. Each cone was opened separately and the seed
carefully sown and labelled, and a portion of all but one
grew, and that one was only two years old, while the oldest
represented the seventh year. White, Scotch, Austrian, and
Pitch Pine seeds came up fairly after being kept five years,
and might possibly have been several years old when re-
ceived. I have found in my experience that too much
moisture is fatal to the germination of old seeds, especially
resinous or oily ones. If sown in soil that is barely moist,
and covered with dry sphagnum, so as to prevent the escape
of the little moisture in the soil, many will grow ; while if
treated in the ordinary way the seed will swell and then rot.
A friend of mine, who does not like too much care, has a
very simple way of raising annually several thousand seed-
lings of the Norway Spruce, and no doubt other evergreens
might be grown under similar conditions. At the back of
his house he has a white pine grove, which is trimmed up
ten or fifteen feet; the soil is a light, sandy loam. In this
he digs several beds, rakes them fine, and early in May sows
the seed, rakes it in lightly, and sprinkles the bed lightly
with pine needles. If the weather is very dry he gives the
bed one or two waterings ; if not dry, he lets it in a great
measure take care of itself. In these beds the seedlings
remain two years, when he transplants them into nursery
beds, where they soon make nice young plants.
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 59
THE BOX SYSTEM
The remarks that I have made would apply to those who
wish to raise trees in large quantities, and where the loss of
a few hundreds in transplanting would be of no material
account. To those who might wish to plant an acre or so
every year, and want no failures, I would recommend another
system, which requires less space and labor, though possibly
more attention, but in the end any one could transplant the
most difficult trees, such as oak, hickory, or chestnut, with
no loss. For want of a better name I have called it the "box
system." No doubt it has often been used, but I have not
heard of any one using it largely except myself.
By this method every root is preserved, and not even a
fibre destroyed ; there are few if any large tap roots to cut
off, and even if grown in the nursery afterwards they lift
with finer roots than the seedlings grown in the ordinary
way ; and though they will not make so vigorous a growth
the first year as they would in the open seed bed, at the end
of the second year after transplanting they are ahead of
those of the same age grown in the ordinary way; and with
no failures. Nine years ago we transplanted from the seed
boxes to a hill-side, in sod ground with no preparation ex-
cept to turn over the sod with a spade where each tree was
to go, some hundreds of oaks one year old, and today they
are fine young trees, from six to nine feet high, well formed,
and much more vigorous than those grown in the nursery,
which have had a great amount of care and labor bestowed
upon them. I believe that if many of our early planters had
used this system in growing oaks, hickories, and other hard
wood trees, they would not have had so many failures to
In the first place procure a lot of common boxes, such as
may be had at any grocery store ; any kind of boxes will do,
though a uniform size is best, as they occupy less space in a
six-foot frame, when packed away, than boxes of various
sizes would. I usually get those that have contained canned
goods, or soap, as they are nearly equal in size, and with
two cuts of a splitting-saw you have from each box three
flats, from three to four inches deep, which is a good depth
for any ordinary seed. With a half -inch auger bore three or
60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
four holes in the bottom of each box for drainage. This will
be sufficient for large-rooted plants, while the finer seeds will
require to be well drained with broken pots, coarse siftings
of peat, or any coarse material that will allow the moisture
to pass off readily.
As soon as the seeds are ripe, in the fall, get together a
good pile of compost, made as follows: two parts rotten sod,
one part peat, and one of sand, and if the seeds to be sown
are oak, hickory, beech, chestnut, or walnut, add a portion of
good rotten manure. For such seeds as I have mentioned fill
your boxes two-thirds full of the compost, and press down
firmly with a board or the hand. Sow the seeds evenly and
press them down in the soil, covering them from half an inch to
an inch in depth, according to their size. On one corner of each
box smooth off a place with a plane or knife, rub over with
white lead, and write the name of the seed and the date of
sowing. This takes only a few minutes, and is of much value
afterwards, especially where a great variety of seeds is sown.
It is much better than labelling in the ordinary way, and
there is no danger of the record being lost in moving the
boxes from one position to another.
The fine seeds — such as those of maples, elms, birches, alders,
and others — should be covered, according to the size of the
seeds, about their own diameter. After sowing, the seeds
should have a good watering with a fine rose, to settle the
soil. The boxes can then be piled four or five deep in a pit,
the sashes placed in it, and at the approach of cold weather
they may be covered with meadow hay, or leaves. This does
not keep the boxes from freezing, but when once frozen it
keeps them so until spring. If no pit is available the boxes
can be piled six or seven deep in a well-sheltered spot, cover-
ing the upper boxes with a few boards, the whole to be
covered with leaves or other litter.
In the case of all the seeds I have mentioned as taking one
or more years to germinate it is unnecessary to cover the
boxes with litter; but it is well to cover with boards, so that
mice or squirrels may not get at the seed; and in many cases
seed that has been so frozen will often come up the first sea-
son, which otherwise would not have come until the second.
As soon as the weather is settled, which is usually about the
middle of April, choose a well sheltered spot, level, and handy
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 61
to water. If the aspect can be an eastern or south-eastern
one I like it better, as they get the early morning sun, but
not the scorching sun at noonday.
Place all the boxes containing the nuts, acorns, and other
large seeds together, in beds of three boxes wide. This will
make it very compact, and much easier to care for them than
if the boxes containing seeds of the same class are scattered
about. The only attention these will require is to keep them
well watered and free from weeds ; but for such seeds as
maple, ash, Carpinus, Crataegus, elm, Cladrastis, and others
of like nature, it would be well to cover the boxes with lath
screens until they have made the second or third rough leaf,
when they might be gradually hardened off and finally
exposed fully to air and light. If a few sashes could be spread
to protect all delicate growing seeds it would be of great
advantage, and as soon as well up they could be treated the
same as the others.
The use of lath screens on seed beds saves a great amount
of labor in watering, and if the plants are neglected for an
hour or so the results are not so disastrous as when the young
seedlings are fully exposed to the sun. Any boxes of seeds
that do not come up before the last of June will hardly appear
that year, but will require to be kept moist, the same as the
growing plants. I usually place all such boxes together in
a shady spot and cover them to the depth of an inch or more
with sphagnum, and by giving them a good watering once or
twice a week they are carried safely through the summer. At
the approach of cold weather they are gathered together,
piled five or six deep as before, and covered for the winter.
When spring comes on they will need to be treated as seed
that has just been sown. For the finer seeds, such as azalea,
rhododendron, kalmia, and others, a special treatment is re-
quired, which I will speak of later.
In the fall of the first year the boxes of young trees may
be gathered together and wintered in a deep pit or frame and
slightly covered with meadow hay. If no frame is available,
three or four inches of pine needles or leaves may be placed
over the boxes, and they may then be left until spring; but
on no account should the boxes be left without any protection,
as the young seedlings will then suffer very much in so little
depth of soil.
62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
All seedling trees can be transplanted when very young as
easily as cabbages or tomatoes if taken as good care of; and
many of them are benefited by the operation. We trans-
plant thousands of them every year with but little loss. The
best time is when they are making their first or second
In the spring of the second year all the young seedlings
should be transplanted from the seed boxes to the nursery
beds, or the larger ones planted where they are to remain;
and for chestnuts, hickories, and oaks I believe it is best to
plant them from the seed box to the field where they are to
remain. If planted in nursery beds, or rows, the treatment
will be the same as I have spoken of under the head of treat-
ment in nurseries.
The boxes I have mentioned are usually from fourteen to
sixteen inches square, and will hold from 100 to 125 oaks,
hickories, chestnuts, or beeches; 175 to 200 ashes or maples;
250 birches or elms ; and so on according to the growth of the
plants. Where a greenhouse can be used for this purpose,
with frames to harden off the young seedlings, much better
results can be obtained, and many of the finer seeds can be
grown, which it is next to impossible to grow in large quan-
tities out of doors.
In conclusion I would say that, while I have not mentioned
every tree by itself, the general principles are the same for all ;
that as a rule the soil should be of the best description and
sheltered; that all seeds should be covered only a little, if
any, deeper than the diameter of the seed ; that they should
be kept clean from weeds, the watering well looked to, and
the shading, in the case of the finer seeds, be carefully
attended to. They should be protected the first season, and
in the end will well repay all the care and attention that
have been bestowed upon them; and any one owning a few
acres of land, who will plant a few boxes of chestnuts, black
walnuts, beech, oak, hickory, or other hard wood trees, that
are usually considered so difficult to transplant, after grow-
ing them one year in the boxes and transplanting the follow-
ing spring where they are to remain, will be astonished to
see how much land can be covered in a few years with
healthy young growths of hard wood with very little trouble
or expense. And in New England, as well as in other parts
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 63
of our country, we have too many acres lying idle, which it
would be more profitable to plant with trees than anything
RHODODENDRONS, AZALEAS, AND KALMIAS
The propagation of these from seed demands great atten-
tion and care, and cannot be successfully done out of doors,
but requires a greenhouse. The best soil to grow young seed-
lings of this class is composed of good peat, loam, and sand,
in equal parts. The sand should be fine, but sharp and
clean, having no clay or iron in it. Earthen pans are best to
sow the seed in, as there is less danger of fungus than with
boxes ; but after the first transplanting boxes may be used.
Being all ready to sow, — say about the first week in
January, — the pans should be well drained by filling them
one-third with broken crocks, over which put a covering of
sphagnum, or the coarse siftings of peat, so that the soil will
not work in among the drainage ; then put in about two
inches of the compost mentioned above, have it well firmed,
and give the pans a gentle watering with a fine rose to settle
the soil. As soon as settled the seed can be sown quite
thickly, but evenly, over the surface. They should then be
covered with the slightest possible covering, — not more
than the sixteenth of an inch, — after which put over the
pans a covering of fine sphagnum, give a gentle syringing,
and place in a temperature of seventy degrees. After sow-
ing, the seed should on no account be allowed to get dry;
but at the same time saturation should be avoided. The seed
will usually come up in from two to three weeks, and in the
meantime the pans will have to be examined occasionally to
see if the seed is coming.
As soon as it shows signs of germinating the coarsest of
the moss should be gradually removed, and when the seed is
fairly up a slight sifting of fresh soil among the young seed-
lings will help to strengthen them. As soon as they have
made the first rough leaf they should be pricked off thickly
in boxes or pans of fresh soil prepared as for the seed, care-
fully syringed, and kept growing in a high temperature and
moist atmosphere. Such delicate seedlings as rhododen-
drons at this stage should never be transplanted in a shed
or room where there is any draught, but always in the close,
64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
moist atmosphere they are grown in, as the roots are so
delicate that only a moment's drying makes them almost
worthless. After five or six weeks the plants will have
covered the surface of the ground in the boxes, when they
will again need transplanting, this time half an inch apart,
and to be otherwise treated the same as before, always being
sure to use fresh soil and clean boxes at each transplanting.
At this stage, if everything has been carefully attended to,
they will grow very rapidly, and will need transplanting
the third time, and, if properly cared for, they will need to
be planted two inches or more apart.
This frequent transplanting in fresh soil each time keeps
the plants from damping and also forms the foundation of a
vigorous plant for the future. If rhododendron seedlings
are left long in the seed box or pan they are apt to be
attacked by a minute fungus, which will often carry off
thousands in a night. The best remedy I have found to check
it is, at the first signs of its appearance, to heat a shovelful
of sand quite hot and sift it amongst the young seedlings,
using a very fine sieve. Many would think that it would
destroy the plants at this tender age, but it does not ; I have
tried it on almost all kinds of young seedlings, and have
found it very effective in destroying the minute fungus
which is such a pest among young plants.
About the first of September more air and less moisture
may be given, so as to harden the plants off preparatory to
their removal to winter quarters, which should be a deep
frame or pit in some sheltered situation. They may be put in
this pit the first of October ; or sooner, if you need the house
for other purposes. In this pit they should have plenty of
air every pleasant day, but should be covered every night to
keep them from frost as long as possible. This can readily
be done in most seasons up to the middle of December or the
first of January by a single mat ; they can then be covered
with mats, or meadow hay, and will only need to be uncov-
ered once every two weeks for an hour or so to guard against
damp or excessive moisture, which will often cause a fungus
even in a cold pit if kept long without air.
In the spring, about the first of May, they can be trans-
planted into well-prepared beds of peaty soil or a light, sandy
loam of good depth. If dry weather sets in they will require
PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 65
plenty of water, as they are not deep-rooted at this time ; if
water is handy I give them a good syringing every evening
as soon as the sun begins to leave the bed, until the middle of
August, when I withhold all moisture so that plants may
ripen well before winter sets in. If they have been well
cared for they will be from six to seven inches high at the
end of the second season.
At the approach of cold weather a slight covering of leaves
between the young plants, and covering the tops with pine
boughs, or coarse meadow hay, to keep the sun off, will carry
the plants through the winter in safety. The following spring
they may be planted in the nursery, where they can remain
until used. The same treatment will apply to Azaleas, Kal-
mias, and other Ericaceous plants, only the Azaleas grow
much more rapidly than the others, and at the end of the sec-
ond season such species as mollis and calendulacea will have
quite a number of flower-buds on them, while the Rhododen-
drons will scarcely show signs of flowering until the fourth
or fifth year.
Medals and Certificates
The following is a list of the Medals and Certificates
awarded by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the
year 1923 :
George Robert White Medal of Honor
John McLaren, Superintendent of Golden Gate Park, San
Francisco, California, for eminent service in horticulture.
April 5. Julius Roehrs Co., group of orchid plants in flower.
5. A. C. Burrage, best display of orchid plants in
5. Walter Hunnewell Estate, group of orchid plants in
5. Thomas Roland, exhibit of acacias in bloom.
5. Garden Club of America, exhibit of model gardens.
Mrs. Bayard Thayer, Chinese lilies.
Appleton Gold Medal
April 5. A. N. Cooley, best twelve orchids.
" 5. " " " best six orchids.
5. A. C. Burrage, best specimen plant orchid.
5. Frederick Pocock, artistic arrangement of orchid
April 5. Mrs. Alice H. Burrage, display of Kalmia latifolia.
5. J. T. W. Uffman, superior cultivation of Cym-
5. Oliver Lines, superior cultivation of orchids.
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 67
June 16. Mrs. M. F. Roberts, peony Priscilla Alden.
16. T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc., the most meritorious
display of peonies.
23. R. S. Bradley, largest and best collection of hardy
August 11. A. E. Kunderd, collection of not less than fifty
September 8. Bay State Nurseries, hardy herbaceous flowers.
November 2. A. C. Burrage, Brasso-Cattleya G. Gr. Mac-
2. R. & J. Farquhar Co., display of chrysanthe-
Appleton Silver Medal
April 5. E. S. Webster, best six orchids.
5. Walter "Hunnewell Estate, best specimen plant
April 5. H. S. Rand, display of zonal pelargoniums.
June 9. H. F. Chase, most comprehensive display of irise,
16. T. F. Donahue, the most meritorious display of
August 11. North River Farms, collection of not less than
fifty named gladioli.
September 8. H. R. Comley, basket of dahlias artistically
November 2. F. W. Hunnewell, artistic display of orchids.
First Class Certificate of Merit
January 8. E. B. Dane, Cypripedium insigne var. Louis
April 5. A. C. Burrage, Brasso-Cattleya Mrs. J. Leeman.
Laelio-Cattleya St. George.
Odontoglossum warnhamense Or-
68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
5. Julius Roehrs Co., Bougainvillea spectabilis Car-
5. J. Onderwater & Co., Hyacinth Marconi.
5. William Sim, Carnation Eldora.
" 5. " " Carnation Sunset.
5. C. B. Johnson, Carnation Harvard.
5. Joseph Breck & Sons, Stock Apricot Beauty.
June 16. E. J. Shaylor, Peony Luella Shaylor.
" 16. A. C. Burrage, Dendrobium acuminatum.
August 11. H. E. Meader, Gladiolus Orange Queen.
11. " " " Gladiolus Souvenir.
" 11. E. N. Fischer, Gladiolus Ornatus.
11. F. W. Hunnewell, Laelio-Cattleya elegans.
25. A. E. Kunderd, Gladiolus gandavensis Exquisite.
November 2. A. C. Burrage, Cattleya Bowringiana lilacina,
C. Gaskelliana coerulescens.
2. E. S. Webster, Chrysanthemum Jane Harte.
April 5. Frederick Pocock, specimen Cattleya Schroderae.
July 7. Henry Stewart, cut Lilium regale.
April 5. Walter Hunnewell Estate, Rhododendron obtusum
" 5. P. B. Robb, Tritonia crocata.
William Sim, Carnation Rosalee.
" " Carnation Rosalence.
Lowthorpe School of Horticulture, model of Low-
Miss Grace Sturtevant, display of irise.
" " " seedling peonies.
Mrs. E. A. Clark, Carnation Merveille Francaise.
W. B. Fay, display of peonies.
A. H. Fewkes, display of peonies.
E. J. Shaylor, Peony Deborah Sayles.
Hillcrest Gardens, Isatis tinctoria.
F. H. Allison, seedling peonies.
MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES
23< T. C." Thurlow's Sons, Inc., artistic display of
Miss M. L. Coburn, collection of garden carnations.
J. H. Alexander, Cactus Dahlia J. Herbert
Upham's Corner Dahlia Gardens, seedling
L. S. Ream, laciniated gladiolus.
Walter Hunnewell, Delphinium seedlings.
A. E. Kunderd, Gladiolus primulinus Clio.
" " " Gladiolus Ulrica.
W. N. Craig, Gladiolus Magenta.
Joseph Breck & Sons, display of dahlias and
Miss M. R. Case, vase of dahlias.
B. H. Tracy, collection of seedling gladioli.
C. W. Brown, collection of seedling gladioli.
Walter Hunnewell, display of delphiniums.
H. R. Comley, table decoration.
Mrs. B. H. Tracy, table decoration.
E. M. Gerould, table decoration.
C. B. Johnson, seedling Carnation Peach.
display of seedling carnations.
S. J. Goddard, display of seedling carnations.
Harvard College, display of foliage plants.
. " 8.
June 9, the Hillcrest Gardens Silver Cup, for the best display
of irise arranged for effect by an amateur, to be
awarded to the exhibitor winning it three times, was
awarded for the third time to Iristhorpe (Mrs. Homer
W. B. H. Dowse Trophy-
Arthur Lyman, Waltham, Mass.
Reports of the Officers and
Committees for 1923
Presented at the Annual Meeting
January 14, 1924
With a list of the members of the society
corrected to January 1, 1924
The inaugural meeting was held at Horticultural Hall at
3 o'clock in the afternoon of Monday, January 14, 1924, with
a much larger attendance than usual. President A. C.
Burrage was in the chair. The secretary read the call for the
meeting and the minutes of the previous meeting at which the
officers for 1924 were elected. The rest of the meeting was
given to the reading of the president 's address and the presen-
tation of reports.
Address of the President
In the early days of this Society the inaugural meeting was
a very important and solemn function and the by-laws still
require that on this occasion the president shall deliver an
inaugural address and that the annual reports of the trustees
and different committees shall be made.
With your permission, however, I am today going to de-
part from the custom of the past and, instead of an inaugural
address, give you a Report of Progress.
It is well known that we have a splendid building, built
for the purpose, and a horticultural library unsurpassed in
the whole world; and, thanks to the generous benefactors
who have passed on, we have a substantial endowment fund
— not sufficient for our needs, but very helpful.
So far as I know, no other horticultural institution in the
world has all three of these in any way comparable to our
But these alone are not sufficient unless they are utilized
to interest people in horticulture. Concrete foundations and
granite walls can make mausoleums as well as exhibition halls.
Libraries, however complete, are of little value unless they
Nor is the international reputation of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society due to any one man or any one deed.
It is due to the actions of a long line of distinguished citizens
INAUGURAL MEETING 73
of Massachusetts who, in their love of horticulture, have given
their time and thought to this institution.
I am here to tell you that we are carrying on. We are
making good. Though we realize that much is left undone,
we are proud of what we have already done.
I am going to refer briefly to some of the things in our
When I first became president of this Society, in January,
1921, it had fifteen trustees and the average number of trus-
tees attending meetings in 1920 was eight. Today you have
twenty trustees and the average attendance for the year 1923
Up to January, 1921, no woman had ever been a trustee of
this society. Now you have four, every one of them energetic,
self-sacrificing, resourceful and most influential.
In the past year the liveliest interest in the society's work
has been shown by all the officers, trustees, employees and
committeemen. The committee meetings have been numerous
and remarkably well attended.
Until last January it had been the custom of the society to
charge an admission fee for all its principal exhibitions. In
other words, it welcomed the public provided they paid cash
to come to the exhibition; and a large part of this cash was
expended in advertising to coax the public to come and pay
their admission fee. The past year the trustees tried the
experiment of having all exhibitions free to all the public.
They were of the opinion that the exhibitions would do the
most good if they could be open to everybody, so that all,
regardless of position, might see the latest and best results of
horticulture. It was felt that in this way the influence of
the society would be extended over a wider area and greater
good be accomplished.
The result has been most gratifying. The attendance for
the whole year was 64,846, and the attendance at the prin-
cipal show of the year — the Spring Exhibition — was 23,774.
Only once in the eleven years preceding 1923 did the in-
come of the society exceed the expenditures. That is, the
records show that in the years from 1912 to 1922, inclusive, a
loss was incurred in every year except 1919. It is gratifying,
therefore, to know that for 1923 our income exceeded our
7^ MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
expenditures by $552.63, and the expectation is that for the
year 1924 this excess will be larger.
It is fair to state that this is partly due to the income re-
ceived from the portion of the Arthur F. Estabrook bequest
which has been paid over to the society, and, on the other
hand, it is expected that in the near future the last payment
from this estate will be made to the society and an increased
revenue derived from it. It is also true that the Society will
have additional income from the $7,000 which it will receive
from the sale of its vacant land in South Boston which it
received from the Francis B. Hayes estate and upon which
it has been paying, for over twenty years, taxes and other
expenses. It is also true that some changes have been made
in the invested funds of the society so that they will yield a
During the past two years much has been done in the way
of permanent repairs and improvements to the building, such
as new partition walls, fire shutters, and a concrete floor in
the main exhibition room, which not only make for greater
cleanliness and safety but also make the building more de-
sirable for rental for exhibitions and other purposes, so that
the increased rental for 1923 over 1922 has been over $2,000 —
a substantial improvement in itself in the finances of the
The Board of Trustees of this society have earnestly sought
to broaden the scope of the society's work and to extend the
number of its members so that it could be of greater useful-
ness in the community which it serves. With this in view,
the trustees have recently voted to try the experiment for
the year 1924 of foregoing the payment of any sum whatever
as admission or entrance fee for annual members. In other
words, the initiation fee of ten dollars for annual members
will be omitted ; the trustees believing that this will be taken
advantage of, in these days of high living costs, by many who
are willing to pay the annual dues of $2 but who feel the
burden of the payment of a ten-dollar initiation fee. We
believe that, as a result of this radical change, there will be
a large increase in the number of members and a great exten-
sion in the work of the Society. We believe this change will
be as successful for 1924 as the alteration of the by-laws for
INAUGURAL MEETING 75
1922 and the removal of the admission fee to exhibitions for
Recently the Committee on Exhibitions have held many
protracted, fully-attended meetings and have been at great
pains to improve the schedule for the exhibitions and to bring
it up to date.
The Trustees have again determined to provide for giving
greater consideration and awards to those who have demon-
strated superior horticulture in the management of their
estates and gardens, and hereafter a more active interest will
be taken by the trustees and their committees constituted for
this purpose in the examination and inspection of superior
gardens, large or small.
In addition to this, the Trustees have voted that greater
recognition will be given to the gardeners or superintendents
who have shown unusual skill in the cultivation and improve-
ment of gardens and plants.
In accordance with the new provisions of the by-laws of
1922, the trustees have arranged that at each of the major
exhibitions of the year, the Committees on Plants and Flow-
ers and Fruits and Vegetables, shall be assisted by someone
who is an expert horticulturist in the special subjects pro-
vided for in each of the main exhibitions. This is done with
the expectation that greater appreciation and attention will
be shown to the superior products of horticulture.
After mature consideration, the trustees have appointed
Mr. Edward I. Farrington secretary, and they believe that
the effectiveness of the society will be greatly increased
through his knowledge of horticultural matters, his energy,
and his wide acquaintance with the various horticultural in-
terests of Massachusetts. They bespeak for him your hearty
co-operation, for it is only by such action that the society will
derive the greatest benefit from this very important action.
For the purpose of establishing a closer relationship be-
tween the members of this society and giving to each member
the opportunity of communicating to other members the
results of his horticultural work, and of giving the public
the benefit of knowledge of importance in horticulture, the
Society has purchased and is now publishing as its official
organ the publication heretofore known as Horticulture.
The warm approval which has been accorded this acquisition
76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
and the great increase in the subscriptions for this semi-
monthly magazine is most gratifying.
In obedience to your appointment, it was my great privi-
lege, and honor, as your representative, to attend the fiftieth
anniversary of the foundation of the Royal Horticultural
Society of Holland at Amsterdam last September. The
courtesy and attention shown me at that time made very clear
the high esteem in which this society is held by the many
horticultural interests in Europe. There was, however, no
mistaking the deep resentment felt by those horticultural in-
terests at the restrictive and prohibitive quarantine regula-
tions which have in recent years been imposed by the Federal
Horticultural Board of the United States Government. Be-
fore this quarantine was established, Holland shipped annually
several million dollars worth of horticultural products to the
United States. On account of the quarantine, a large part of
this business has been cut off and many horticultural estab-
lishments have been seriously hurt, and many given up. The
Dutch feel that these restrictions are unnecessary and unfair
and are therefore unhappy over their situation.
In connection with this Congress it was possible for me to
visit many of the horticultural establishments of the Conti-
nent of Europe. Time does not permit me to describe these
visits, but I may give you the result in my mind. Briefly,
it is a profound respect for the skilled horticulturists of the
Old World, for their respect for their traditions and inheri-
tances — for their studious researches in botany and horti-
culture — for their eagerness to initiate as well as to profit by
the teachings of others — for their thrift and for their accom-
plishments in standardizing and perfecting the horticultural
products which are so necessary to modern civilized life.
For a number of years the exhibitions of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society have been very largely dependent upon
the interest and active work of amateurs, and there has been,
from one cause or another, a slackening of the interest of the
commercial gardeners, not only in flowers but in fruits and
vegetables. The trustees are now considering plans for the
betterment of this situation and it is likely that during the
present year the heartier co-operation of the commercial hor-
ticultural interests in Massachusetts will be definitely urged
by the society and greater pains will be taken to bring about
INAUGURAL MEETING * 77
better and more comprehensive exhibitions by such interests
and a greater appreciation and reward for them.
This is the fourth time you have unanimously elected me
your president — surely, in these days, a rare and distinguished
honor. It is one, however, which I have never sought or
expected — or deserved; but one which I fully appreciate and
for which I am deeply grateful. I was not chosen to teach or
instruct you, but to induce others to help, and this is what
I have sought to do rather by example than by words, rather
by showing what nature has than by showing how man has
improved upon nature. Your appreciation of my efforts has
pleased me greatly and has proved a great reward, and next
year, when you choose my successor, I hope that you will select
one who has real knowledge of the science of horticulture, of
botany, and of the laws of plant-life, which will enable him
to make better use of the wonderful assets possessed by the
Those who have built and carried on this Society for ninety
years have done well, and it is right that the Society should
continue for many generations strong and sturdy — a bene-
ficent factor in the advancement of our civilization and the
appreciation of the finer things of life.
A. C. Burrage, President.
Report of the Secretary
The business of the second year under the new by-laws of
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has been carried on
with a smoothness and precision which indicate the wisdom
shown in framing these by-laws. It has been a year of many
changes, some of unusual importance and one, at least, dis-
tinctly radical in its nature. The Society has accepted new
responsibilities and has shown a progressive tendency which
is in keeping with the times.
It has taken important measures to improve its exhibitions.
It has broadened the field of the library without detracting
from its technical value.
78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
It has opened its membership to a far greater number of
It has purchased a going publication of national circula-
tion which it is now publishing as its own, being the first
organization of the kind in the country to adopt such a course.
It has employed a new secretary, accepting with regret the
resignation of the official whose long term of service had
brought him into friendly contact with hundreds of members.
The Inaugural Meeting for the year 1923 was held at Horti-
cultural Hall at 3 o'clock the afternoon of January 8. Vice
President Allen was in the chair. The reports of the various
committees were read, accepted and placed on file.
Following a vote of the executive committee at the February
meeting three pairs of iron shutters were placed on the library
windows next to the St. James Theatre at a cost of $400,
greatly decreasing the risk of fire.
It was also voted at this meeting that an invitation be ex-
tended to the American Orchid Society to hold an exhibition
in the halls May 8 to 11, 1924, and offering two gold medals
and six silver medals. The offer was accepted and the exhi-
bition, for which active preparations are now being made,
gives promise of being the most important event of the kind
ever held on this continent.
At a meeting of -the executive committee on June 15, a
letter from Mrs. Bayard Thayer presented a plan for obtain-
ing the cooperation of the ladies in improving the exhibitions
of the Society, and a vote was passed requesting the lady
members of the Board of Trustees to make such recommenda-
tions to the full board as they might deem advisable.
As a result of an offer from the Lenox Garden Club through
its president, Miss Georgiana Sargent, at a meeting of the
Board of Trustees, on June 26, a prize of $50 for an exhi-
bition of perennials appears in the schedule for 1924. Mrs.
Harriet J. Bradbury offered the sum of $2,500 to be added
to the George Robert White Medal of Honor Fund, in order
to keep the income at the required amount for casting a new
medal each year. Mr. Edward B. Wilder offered the Society
a painting of the exhibition of the United States Agricultural
Society in Boston in 1855. Mrs. Homer Gage offered a prize
of $50 to be given in any exhibition of the Society, and in any
INAUGURAL MEETING 79
class except the Iris classes. All three offers were accepted
The Wilder painting, in which the figure of Marshall P.
Wilder appears on horse back, has been hung in the library.
It was with great regret that the members of the Society read
later in the year of the death of Mr. Edward B. Wilder, who
was chairman of the Committee on Fruits, and active in the
work of the Society. Mr. Albert R. Jenks, of Acton, was
appointed Mr. Wilder 's successor as chairman of the fruit
At the June meeting the resignation of Mr. William P.
Rich as secretary, librarian and superintendent of the build-
ing, was accepted. At a very largely attended meeting of the
Trustees on July 19, Edward I. Farrington was appointed
to these positions, and later was made editor of the Society's
publications. An arrangement was made with Mr. Rich to
continue his service in the library. At this meeting the Trus-
tees voted to purchase the publication known as Horticulture,
Gardening Edition, with the exclusive right to use the name
of Horticulture as the title of the magazine. Since the first
of August, this publication has been issued by the Society
and now has a circulation of about 6,000 copies. It has been
successful in creating an interest in the work of the Massa-
chusetts Horticultural Society in all parts of the country.
At a subsequent meeting of the executive committee on
August 3 it was voted that three trustees, Professor C. S. Sar-
gent, Mr. E. H. Wilson and Mr. Fred A. Wilson, serve as a
committee to have direct control of Horticulture's editorial
At a meeting of the executive committee November 26 much
time was devoted to a discussion of the shows. The committee
on exhibitions was requested to arrange for appropriate recog-
nition of superior horticultural work on the part of gardeners
and superintendents of estates, and to provide for a lesser
number of small money prizes and a greater number of larger
money prizes in the 1924 schedule. As a result of these votes
and the general discussion, the Committee on Exhibitions has
made many very important changes in the new schedule, com-
bining two of the early summer and two of the autumn shows,
arranging for many additional displays and eliminating all
80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
small classes for the Gladiolus and Dahlia exhibitions, which
will be held in cooperation with the New England Gladiolus
Society, and New England Dahlia Society, as in 1923, when
the plan proved very successful.
The final meeting of the executive committee was held De-
cember 13, when President Burrage urged that radical means
be taken to increase the membership of the Society and thus
increase its usefulness. He proposed that the entrance fee
of ten dollars for annual members be waived for the year
1924. After full discussion, a vote to this effect was carried
and was later ratified by the full board of Trustees. As a
result of this action, many applications for membership blanks
are being received by the secretary.
At this meeting it was voted (the vote being ratified by
the trustees at a later meeting) that a gold medal be awarded
by the Society in 1926 to the owner of the native tree which
in the opinion of the Society's committee is the best among
those entered for competition in the matter of size, general
appearance and evidence of care. An offer of the plaster
designs of the White Medal made to the Society by Professor
C. S. Sargent was accepted and the designs, nicely framed,
have been hung in the committee room.
At a stated meeting of the Trustees on December 17, it was
voted to sell a parcel of land owned by the Society in South
Boston, and upon which taxes have been paid for many years,
for $7,879. At this meeting the Trustees voted an appropri-
ation of $5,000 to cover the prizes offered at the exhibitions
In the course of the year the Society's Gold Medal was
awarded by vote of the Trustees to Mrs. Bayard Thayer for
her efforts to preserve and propagate the newer Chinese Lilies,
including Lilium regale and L. Thayerae, and by the garden
committee to Mr. and Mrs. Henry Sargent Hunnewell of
Natick for their unusually well planned gardens, and espe-
cially their Kose garden. The medal comes from the Hunne-
The George Robert White Medal was awarded at the close
of the year to Mr. John McLaren, superintendent of Golden
Gate Park, San Francisco, for his eminent service in develop-
ing horticulture on the Pacific coast.
INAUGURAL MEETING 81
Special mention should be made of the annual meeting on
November 17, which resolved itself somewhat informally into
what President Burrage called a "town meeting" and at
which many suggestions of value and importance, especially
as relating to the shows, were presented. At this meeting the
officers who are being inaugurated today were elected without
Death has taken an unusually heavy toll of members the
past year, 29 life members and four annual members having
Seventeen life members and thirteen annual members have
been added, making the total membership at the close of the
In the course of the year the library was increased by the
addition of 305 books and hundreds of pamphlets. It
was also enriched by a very unusual gift from Warren H.
Manning, consisting of trade catalogues, running back almost
to the beginning of the past century. This collection, which
has great value, is being classified and put on the shelves in
a special room and in such a manner that any catalogue from
any part of the world can be located in a few moments'
It is expected that this collection will be greatly appreciated
by commercial horticulturists. Mr. Woodward Manning has
very generously given the Society his collection of photo-
graphic negatives, illustrating trees, shrubs and flowers, and
including many hundred subjects. These negatives are being
printed and the photographs will be catalogued and filed for
the use of the members. Votes of thanks have been ex-
tended to both Mr. Warren Manning and Mr. Woodward
There has been an increasing demand for the halls through-
out the year, a sum amounting to $10,970.66 having been taken
in as rentals as against $8,582.04 in 1922.
The lectures given at the exhibitions throughout the season
were well attended, and were so successful that the plan is
to be continued throughout 1924, but without expense to the
Society, each of the four lady Trustees having contributed
$100 and Mr. Burrage $200, making a total of $600 available
for these summer lectures.
82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
In closing his report, the secretary desires to express his
appreciation of the hearty support given him by the officers
and Trustees during his short term of office, and of the many
kindly expressions from members who have visited the hall.
E. I. Farrington, Secretary.
Report of the Treasurer
Income from Investments and Bank Interest. . . . $16,797 84
" " Rents 10,720 66
" " Membership Fees 446 00
" " Sale of Lots in Mt. Auburn Cemetery 1,481 81
" " Library Catalogue 50 00
" " Sundry Donations 311 00 $29,807 31
Operating Expense $21,622 11
Viz : Salaries $4,730 42
Insurance 1,395 54
Heating . 2,057 14
Labor 6,857 80
Incidentals 2,205 60
Stationery and Printing 1,056 72
Lighting 1,326 72
Library 377 14
Postage . 120 00
Repairs 1,495 03
Prizes $ 3,553 75
Viz: Plants and Flowers in excess of
income from special funds . . $1,365 00
Fruits in excess of income from
special funds 624 00
Vegetables in excess of income
from special funds 1,322 00
Children's Gardens 242 75
Expenditures by Committees $ 1,694 72
Viz : Lectures and Publications 1,002 00
Medals 191 72
Plants 223 00
Fruits 136 00
Vegetables 142 00
Expenses Paid from Funds $ 2,193 10
Viz: Samuel Appleton Fund $ 69 00
John A. Lowell " 90 00
Theodore Lyman " 274 00
Josiah Bradlee " 35 00
Benj. V. French " 134 00
H. H. Hunnewell " 113 00
Wm. J. Walker " 129 00
Levi Whitcomb " 48 00
Benj. B. Davis " 35 00
Marshall P. Wilder " 38 00
Henry A. Gane " 139 00
John S. Farlow " 108 33
John D. W. French " 229 10
Benj. H. Pierce " 12 00
John C. Chaffin " 121 00
John Allen French " 357 00
John S. Farlow " 255 00
George R, White Medal ... 6 67
Miscellaneous Expense 191 00
Excess of income over expenditures 552 63 $29,254 68
December 31, 1923
Life Members, December 31, 1922. 814
Added in 1923 17
Changed from Annual 3
Deceased 29 805
Annual Members, December 31, 1922 203
Added in 1923 13
84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Changed to Life 3
Dropped for non-payment of dues 2 11 205
Membership, December 31, 1923 1,010
treasurer's rerort 93
Income from Membership
17 New Life Members at $30 $ 510 00
13 New Annual Members at $10 130 00
3 Annual Members Changed to Life 58 00
Annual Members' Dues for 1923 316 00
List of Stocks and Bonds Held by the Massachusetts
$2,000 Kansas, Clinton & Springfield 5% Bonds
1925 $ 1,980 00
$10,000 Lake Shore & Mich. Southern R.R. 3%%
Bonds 1997 10,000 00
$50,000 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 4% Bonds
1995 44,693 25
$11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. 5% Bonds 9,933 75
$25,000 Kan. City, Ft. Scott & Memphis 6% Bds.
1928 .' 25,000 00
$50,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 111. Div.
3V 2 % Bonds 1949 50,000 00
$8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. 4y 2 % Bonds 1944. 8,000 00
$4,000 American Tel. & Tel. Co. Conv. 4% Bonds
1936 4,000 00
$4,000 Interborough Rap. Transit 5% Bds. 1966. 3,920 00
$12,000 Pacific Tel. & Tel. Co. 5% Bonds 1937. . . 11,670 00
$10,000 American Tel. & Tel." Co. Conv. 4P/ 2 %
Bonds 1933 8,396 00
$5,000 United States Steel 5% Bonds 1963 5,043 75
$10,000 Appalachian Pr. Co. 5% Bonds 1941 9,225 00
REPORT OF EXHIBITIONS COMMITTEE
$20,000 Atlantic Refining Co. 5% Bonds 1937. . . . 19,940 00
$10,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 5% Bonds
1971 ' 10,212 50
$10,000 N. Y. C. R. R. Co. 5% Bonds 2013 9,950 00
$11,000 Consolidated Electric Co. 5% Bds. 1955. . 10,010 00
$10,000 So. California Tel. Co. 5% Bds. 1947. . . . 9,550 00
$11,000 Ohio Power Co. 6% Bonds 1953 10,835 00
$3,000 Chicago Junction Rys. 5% Bonds 1940 2,824 50
$5,000 Commonwealth Edison 5% Bonds 1943 4,932 50
$5,000 American Tel. & Tel. Co. 5% Bds. 1946. . 4,973 75
$5,000 New England Tel. & Tel. Co. 5% Bds. 1952 4,982 50
$5,000 Detroit Edison 5% Bonds 1940 4,807 50
$13,000 Southern Public Utilities 5% Bds. 1943. . 11,862 50
$5,000 Western Union 5% Bonds 1938 4,982 50
337 Shs. General Electric Co. ) -. o ^a-i oa
336 " " " " Special Stock (' ' '"' "
110 " Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey 11,550 00
John S. Ames,
Report of the Committee on Exhibitions
Within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Exhibitions
nothing of extraordinary moment occurred during the year
1923, with the notable exception that all exhibitions were
open free to the public. The Committee followed the even
tenor of its way to the appreciation and satisfaction of thous-
ands of interested visitors.
Ten exhibitions were scheduled for the year. Nine on the
regular list and one specially for fruits and vegetables. The
first one April 5-8 was a Grand Exhibition of Spring Flower-
ing Plants, with special prizes offered for Spring Bulb Gar-
den. It was open for four days with the unusually large
attendance of 23,774. The number of classes scheduled was
84. Number of classes filled 47. Prizes offered amounted to
$3,226. Prizes awarded $1,574.
The Iris exhibition, June 9 and 10, brought an attendance
86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
of 4,819. Classes scheduled, 32; Classes filled, 27. Prizes
offered, $603 ; Prizes awarded, $355.
The Peony show followed, June 16 and 17 with an atten-
dance of 3,892. Classes scheduled, 14; Classes filled, 13.
Prizes offered, $134; Prizes awarded, $132.
June 23 and 24 came the Rose show with an attendance of
4,774. Classes scheduled, 54 ; Classes filled, 36. Prizes offered,
$546; Prizes awarded, $317.
July 7 and 8 — Rambler Roses, Small Fruits and Vegetables.
Attendance, 3,757. Classes scheduled, 28; Classes filled, 22.
Prizes offered, $220 ; Prizes awarded, $159.
August 11 and 12 — Gladiolus. Attendance, 4,629. Classes
scheduled, 52 ; Classes filled, 47. Prizes offered, $546 ; Prizes
August 25 and 26 — Children's Gardens. No record of at-
tendance was kept. Classes scheduled, 31 ; Classes filled, 31.
Prizes offered, $315; Prizes awarded, $255.
September 8 and 9 — Dahlia show. Attendance, 6,326.
Classes scheduled, 168 ; Classes filled, 151. Prizes offered,
$254; Prizes awarded, $261. This is the only case when prizes
awarded exceeded prizes offered.
September 28, 29 and 30 — Special Exhibition, Fruits and
Vegetables. Attendance, 4,868. Classes scheduled, 168 ;
Classes filled, 151. Prizes offered, $1,898; Prizes awarded,
November 2, 3 and 4 — Autumn Exhibition. Plants, Flowers,
Fruits and Vegetables. Attendance, 8,004. Classes sched-
uled, 104; Classes filled, 95. Prizes offered, $1,421; Prizes
Summarizing, we find that the prizes offered for the year
amounted to $9,171.25 and the prizes awarded amounted to
$6,170.25. Leaving a balance of $3,001.
I have formulated these statistics for the use and benefit
of those who may follow in making up the annual schedules.
It will be noticed that all the classes scheduled do not fill, and
of the prizes offered many are not awarded. So that, in
making up the annual schedule considerable leeway is per-
missible in our demands on the Trustees for funds to cover
the prizes offered.
In making up the schedule for 1924 it was deemed advis-
REPORT OP EXHIBITIONS COMMITTEE 87
able to combine the late June show of Roses, Strawberries and
Sweet Peas, with the one usually held in early July, as the
classes are quite similar.
There seems to be a demand for prolonging some of the
exhibitions. The experiment was tried this year with the
Gladiolus show, carrying it over through Monday. It was
not a success ; the flowers faded and the attendance was small.
This year the experiment of opening the Gladiolus show Fri-
day evening and continuing through Saturday and Sunday
will be tried. The opening evening will be something in the
nature of a private view, limited to members of the Society.
Similar arrangements will be made for the Special National
Orchid Show, to be held in May.
The Committee begs to call attention to a few details of
installation. It will be noticed that the usual enormous spread
of staring white paper or cloth on the exhibition tables has
been abandoned, and a more agreeable green note, skirting
the tables has been substituted. A further improvement would
be to substitute a moss green for the white usually used on
top of the tables. Green is a much better foil than white for
the colors of both flowers and fruit. That is a lesson which
should have been learned from nature long ago.
The Committee suggests also that the monotonous mounting
of exhibits on the dead level of flat tables be changed to more
upright forms. It would be easy to accomplish by the use
of steps, or of woven wire and more green foliage.
We must again call the attention of exhibitors to the rule
that all exhibits must be properly labeled, which means that
the exhibits must be labeled not only legibly but rightly, and
the non-observance of this rule may lead to disqualification.
In order that there may be uniformity in the matter of labels
suitable cards will be furnished by the Secretary on applica-
tion at his office.
The question of readjusting the artificial lighting of the
exhibition halls is under consideration and we trust that the
effect will be studied with more regard to our own exhibitions
than to those of the promiscuous lessees.
The popularity with the public of different kinds of flowers
is always an interesting subject. If it can be gauged by the
attendance at the exhibitions this result follows: 1st, Dahlias
88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
with attendance of 6,326. 2nd, Iris, attendance 4,819. 3rd,
Roses, attendance, 4,774. 4th, Gladiolus, attendance, 4,629
and 5th, Peonies with an attendance of 3,892. As compared
with two previous years, Dahlias continue to head the list;
Irise have risen from 3rd to 2nd place ; Gladioli have fallen
from 2nd to 4th place and Peonies have fallen a peg.
We had as guests last year The New England Gladiolus
Society and the New England Dahlia Society. Each of these
societies had its own schedule of prizes, and as we made the
dates synchronize with our own shows the scope of the com-
bined exhibitions was much enlarged and the practice will
be continued this year.
The schedule for 1924 has been prepared and printed and
soon will be ready for distribution.
Chairman of Exhibition Committee.
Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers
At the Inaugural Meeting held January 8, Donald McKen-
zie, gardener to Mr. E. B. Dane, exhibited an unusual plant
of Cypripedium insigne v. Louis Sander, with four perfect
dorsal sepals, and two perfect columns. It was awarded a
first class certificate of merit.
SPRING SHOW, APRIL 5-8
The Spring Show was the best we have had for many years.
It was particularly rich in well-grown plants.
The crowning feature was Thomas Roland's display of
Acacias, occupying the entire lecture hall. In this exhibit
Mr. Roland outdid himself. All the plants were first class
specimens, and never so many kinds were shown before. Much
skill was shown in the arrangement.
Here follows a list of the kinds shown :
Armata, var pendula, pubescens in two or three varieties,
longifolia, heterophylla, Drummondii, Baileyana, grandis,
Riceana, cultriformis, latifolia, paradoxa, dealbata, mucro-
nota, ovata, and hispidissima.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 89
The plants of Rhododendron "Pink Pearl" from the
Thomas E. Proctor estate, have probably never been equalled
before in this country.
Mr. A. C. Burrage's Orchid display had more specimens
of unusual merit than has ever been shown in Boston at one
exhibition, by one exhibitor.
F. W. Hunnewell's group of Cymbidiums was unusually
fine. The Silver Medal for culture awarded the grower was
Six specimen plants of Rhododendron obtusum Kaempferi
from the Hunnewell estate were marvelous in color — a group
of select varieties, showing wide range in color.
Julius Roehrs of Rutherford, N. J., set up a nice lot of
commercial Orchid plants, and a new carmine flowered Bou-
gainvillea, evidently of the B. spectabilis type, which attracted
Harry S. Rand, of Cambridge, made a very interesting
display of Zonal Pelargoniums, showing more than 100 var-
ieties, with much variation in foliage and bloom.
Mrs. Alice Burrage's display of Mountain Laurel was
naturally placed and very effective. It required rare skill
to get them all in such nice trim.
Harold Patten of Tewksbury staged some first-class Carna-
tions. Wm. Sim's seedling Carnations attracted favorable
comment, and undoubtedly some of them have a future.
The A. N. Cooley Orchids, which were awarded the Apple-
ton Gold Medal, were all first-class specimens. The names of
most of them follow: Brasso-cattleya Veitchii, Brasso-cat-
tleya Queen Alexandria, Laelio-cattleya Haroldiana, Odon-
tioda Zephryr, Odontoglossom ardentissimum, Cattleya Magal-
Sanderae "Purity," Cattleya Schroederae, Cattleya Mossiae
Cooleyana, Laelio-cattleya luminosa "Mandarin."
Mr. Burrage's Orchid displa}^ was wonderfully well set up.
The grouping was done about a pergola of evergreen tree
trunks, grotto-like in character, well blended and dressed up
with ferns and other furnishing. A selection is made of the
most notable plants :
Brasso-cattleya "Mrs. J. Leeman," finest yellow; Brasso-
cattleya "St. George," salmon pink; many fine Odontiodas
in scarlet tones, Odontoglossum warnhamense Orchidvale
90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
variety,— a real gem, with sulphur yellow ground spotted red.
There was an exceptional specimen plant of Cattleya Schroe-
derae, three feet across, and crowded with blooms in the best
condition. Other Orchids were : Brasso-cattleya Langleyen-
sis, Sophronitis grandiflora, Oncidium splendidum, Odon-
tioda "Kitty," Odontoglossum, McNabianum, Odontoglossum
Rossii majus and Odontioda H. L. Chalifou. Some interest-
ing and otherwise curious Orchids were Gongora galatea,
said to look like a grasshopper ; Angraecium sesquipedale, with
long-tailed flowers; and the curious Saccolabium bellinum,
with exserted movable lip.
Mr. H. Huebner, of Groton, Mass., showed his new stock,
"Apricot Beauty," with large spikes and delicately tinted
E. S. Webster showed a fine specimen plant of Gloriosa
Rothschildiana, which may be described as a climbing Lily.
This plant probably attracted more attention than any other
A display that was very much admired was a vase of Tri-
tonia crocata, shown by Mr. Peter Robb of Whitinsville. The
flowers lasted remarkably well.
There were well grown specimens of Schizanthns from the
Webster and Dane estates.
Bulbs were scarce and of moderate quality only.
RHODODENDRON, AZALEA AND IRIS SHOW, JUNE 9
Iris were shown in considerable numbers, but were not up
to the mark in quality. The Iristhorpe (Mrs. Homer Gage)
display showed the best culture and included, besides the best
varieties of the Germanica type, some very good varieties of
Siberica and orientalis, which are better suited for the hardy
garden than grouping on exhibition. The old Pseudacorus
' also was shown in this group. Curiously there does not seem
to be any hybrid with this species. We should think it a
Miss Grace Sturtevant of Wellesley Farms had, as usual,
a choice selection, including some of her best seedlings.
The only creditable display of Rhododendron blooms came
from the Hunnewell estate at Wellesley. There were no
varieties of special merit.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 91
E. S. Webster had a fine lot of show Pelargoniums and
Irving Stewart, gardener to Mr. Howard Coonley, showed
some of his father's best hybrid Calceolarias, Stewartii and
Lymanii being among them.
PEONY SHOW, JUNE 16
The Cherry Hill Nursery's big display was the dominating
feature, but Mr. Donahue of Newton Lower Falls also showed
some very fine blooms.
Mr. E. J. Shaylor of Weston exhibited a number of seed-
lings, some of outstanding merit, particularly "Deborah
Sayles, " a large rose-tinted variety. Another of merit was
Some of Arthur Fewkes' seedlings were attractive and
Mrs. Milton Robert of West Medford won the prize for
the best seedling with a white variety of great promise.
ROSE, SWEET PEA AND STRAWBERRY SHOW, JUNE 23-24
Hybrid Perpetual Roses of late years have been indifferently
shown. Apparently they are giving way to Hybrid Teas.
However, the selection put up by Mr. R. S. Bradley, Prides
Crossing, Mass., was a creditable one. Mr. A. J. Fish of New
Bedford made a good display of Rambler Roses.
Competitors in the classes for Hybrid Teas were few, and
the blooms quite ordinary. There were no new varieties of
The Sweet Pea Society held their show in conjunction with
ours. There was not a large display, and the flowers came
mostly from Newport. Apparently it was too early for this
The most conspicuous varieties were: "Hawlmark, " pink
and cerise; " Splendor," maroon; " Sunset," magenta; "Fel-
ton's Cream," Edna May, white; "Austin Frederick," laven-
der; "Royal Purple"; "Constance Hinton," white; "Doris,"
scarlet; "Tom Jones," deep blue; "President Harding,"
salmon; "Cherub," tinted salmon; "Mrs. Hitchcock," cream
Henry Naber had the best collection of native flowers. Miss
92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Marian Roby Case exhibited some flowers of the "Woad
Isatis tinctoria. Mrs. Philip Weld showed hardy flowers.
RAMBLER ROSE SHOW, JULY 7
There was a comprehensive collection of Rambler Roses
shown by Mr. A. J. Fish, of New Bedford. His ''Silver
Moon" was exquisite. Dr. Henry, a maroon, semi-double,
was very much admired.
Mr. L. C. Col burn of Everett made an interesting display
of garden Carnations from seed. Among them were many
Henry Stewart of Waltham exhibited cut Lilium regale.
They were extra good; as many as 16 flowers were counted
on a single stem.
. F. W. Hunnewell showed Laelio-cattleya "Mary Copley"
(L, C. Amanda x Rex), sepals and petals pinkish cream, lip
white edged, purplish blotch, centre bronzy veined.
GLADIOLUS EXHIBITION, AUG. 11-12
The Gladiolus Show was well above the average, the New
England Society adding much to the display. The Hall,
from a decorative point of view, was lacking in material to
make an effective whole ; in other words, there was little or
nothing to relieve the monotony. There were few examples
of the way to use Gladiolus flowers artistically. The only
noticeable one was put together by Miss Sophie Fischer, and
this was a basket.
Mrs. Hammond Tracy on various occasions has done most
effective work in arranging Gladiolus flowers artistically.
One noticeable thing in the show was the extent to which
the primulinus type is merging with the gandavensis and
other large flowered forms. In a way this is a pity, for we
lose rather than gain.
Large displays were made by A. L. Stephen, Waban; C. F.
Fairbanks, Lexington; B. & A. Norley, Roslindale; W. N.
Craig, Weymouth; W. E. Clark, Sharon; H. E. Meader,
Dover, N. H. ; J. A. Kemp, Little Silver, N. J. and others.
The outstanding varieties, which are also the principal
winners of prizes were : ' ' Europa, ' ' white ; ' ' Crimson Glow, ' '
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 93
"The Pearl," pink; "Marechal Foch," light pink; "Souve-
nir," golden yellow; "Gold," "La Coronne, " lemon yellow,
red center; "Dr. Norton," cerise, creamy center; "Peach
Rose," "Dream," red; "Pink Wonder"; "Prince of Wales,"
orange; "Salmon Beauty"; "Cinderella," white; "Mrs.
Pendleton," Lemoine type, and "Rosalind," maroon.
A nice selection of annuals came from John Doig, Barring-
ton, R. I. Walter Hunnewell showed Larkspurs; Herbert
Alexander, early blooming Dahlias. F. W. Hunnewell showed
an Orchid Laelia elegans x L. majalis, sepals and petals white,
or nearly white, lip white, purplish blotch, light yellow tint
in the throat.
DAHLIA EXHIBITION, SEPT. 8-9
The Dahlia Show as usual brought together a big lot of
enthusiasts, mostly dealers. Dahlias now are too big At
present it seems that bigness is the thing, and it was reported
that one flower in the exhibition measured 14 inches. There
can be nothing refined in such monstrosities. They are nearly
all of one type, too. What was introduced a few years ago
as the Peony-flowered Dahlia is an offshoot of the old "deco-
rative." The blooms were, at first, semi-double, but some
which show an affinity with the Cactus-flowered type, have
filled in considerably, and have become full double. One
either wants a single or a double. Anything in between lacks
decorative value. Very few have color value.
One exhibitor only set up a collection of the old "Show"
varieties, and he probably grew them just for this exhibition,
and the same may be said of the display of Pompons.
Mr. C. W. Brown and Mr. Hammond Tracy made displays
of Gladioli, mostly varieties that were not in bloom in time
for the regular show.
A comprehensive display of hardy flowers was sent by the
Bay State Nurseries, which attracted much attention — a
pleasant relief from the monotony of Dahlias.
"Paul Michael" (Dahlia) exhibited by A. E. Thatcher of
the Upham Dahlia Gardens, Dorchester, Mass., was the only
one the committee thought well enough of to honor with a
special award. This was a large, perfectly formed flower, of
bright orange color.
94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
H. R. Comley had a very nice table decoration in which
a basket of Pompon Dahlias was the feature.
Mrs. Hammond Tracy used Pompon Dahlias and Gladioli;
both exhibits showed good taste.
AUTUMN SHOW, NOV. 2
Winter-flowering Begonias were again the feature of the
fall Show. The plants shown by E. S. Webster and R. S.
Bradley were well up to the mark. The varieties were about
the same in both groups. "Pink Perfection," "Optima,"
"Exquisite," "Rose Queen," "Sunrise," "Lucy Clirbran,"
Webster's Chrysanthemum group was well put up. The
color effect was excellent. The daisy-like Chrysanthemum
"Anna," white, and its yellow sport "Jane Harte," were
most effectively used. Other notable varieties were : Yellow
and white, "Garza," "Source d'Or," Maple Leaf," "Mary
Richardson" and "Waverly Star."
Mrs. Homer Gage's decorative display of flowering and
foliaged plants was nicely conceived, and well worked out,
with palms, oak leaves and ferns as decorative material.
Chrysanthemums provided most of the flowering, or flowers.
The Harvard Botanic Garden staged a neat lot of foliaged
plants, Bromeliads being the feature. They were very in-
teresting, and not often seen at exhibitions.
Carnations were excellent. C. B. Johnson of Woburn,
Strout's of Biddeford, and S. J. Goddard of Framingham,
were the principal exhibitors.
There were many seedlings entered without names — a
doubtful practice. "Matchless" and "Harvester" were the
best whites; "Laddie" and "Surprise" were best among the
pinks. C. B. Johnson's varicolored "Peach" was very much
admired. It is not striped, but yellow ground flushed and
tipped with pink, much as in the old Picotee.
Strout's set up a collection of standard varieties, very
nicely arranged, including ' ' Irene, ' ' pink ; ' * Improved Ward, ' '
and "Maine Sunshine."
R. &. J. Farquhar Co. made a display of outdoor varieties
of Chrysanthemums which are suitable for outdoor culture,
Specimen Acacia Exhibited by Thomas Roland
at the March Exhibition, 1923
96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
and W. N. Craig showed varieties that had been grown
wholly outdoors, both instructive exhibits.
F. W. Hunnewell put up a choice lot of Orchids nicely
arranged, including Laelio-cattleya Gottoiana, Laelio-cat-
tleya " Ariel, " Laelio-cattleya "Wellesley, " Laelio-cattleya
"St. George," Oncidium ornithorynchum, Laelia elegans,
Cypripedium "Olivia," Cattleya "Portia," and Vanda tri-
A. C. Burrage had a new Orchid of great beauty and variety
of coloring, Cattleya Bowringiana v. liliacina x Cattleya
Gaskelliana v. coerulescens. The flowers are almost wholly
lavender, with deeper colored lip.
T. D. Hatfield, Chairman.
Report of the Committee on Fruit
This report must necessarily be very brief, owing to the
death of Mr. Edward B. Wilder, chairman of the committee
for many years, who undoubtedly had made numerous notes,
and would have given an interesting and valuable report if
he could have been here. The committee feels keenly the loss
of Mr. Wilder, who never spared himself when a fruit show
was to be staged at Horticultural Hall.
The special fruit and vegetable show held September 28,
29 and 30, was the big event of the year, and brought out a
fine collection. The fruit was staged in the Lecture Hall.
Some effort was made at decorative effects, but the results
were not as satisfactory as had been hoped. At the same time
the work, which was done in this respect will enable the com-
mittee to arrange more satisfactorily for displays at future
The public seemed interested in an exhibition of packages
demonstrating the manner in which small quantities of fruits
could be shipped to city homes.
A display of home grown fruit made by Mr. John S. Doig
was especially interesting because of the tropical fruits grown
under glass which it included.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES 97
An unusually fine exhibition of seedling grapes was made
by E. A. Adams, of West Medwa} r . The first prize for the
best collection of native grapes arranged for decorative effect,
covering 12 linear feet, went to Hillcrest Gardens.
E. A. Pierce of Wellesley Farms won first for two hand-
some bunches of Black Hamburg grapes.
The Autumn Show, November 2, 3 and 4, also brought out
a very large collection of apples, some of which were of
superior quality. At this show Mr. A. C. Burrage displayed
several bunches of hothouse grapes of unusual size and quality
which attracted much attention.
This year the committee has made several changes in the
schedule, eliminating pears and apples which did not bring
out any exhibits in 1923.
Albert R. Jenks, Chairman.
Report of the Committee on Vegetables
During 1923 there were seven exhibitions where competi-
tive classes were provided for vegetables. At the early shows
the displays were rather small, but at the special fruit and
vegetable show held in September and at the fall exhibition in
November the competition was good and the quality of exhib-
its excellent. The great difference between the shows of today
and those of 20 years ago is that while at the earlier shows
most of the exhibitors were commercial men, at the present
time nearly all are from private estates. The gradual elimi-
nation of commercial displays seems regrettable, and it would
be well to carefully consider methods which might encourage
them to once more support our shows.
The collections of vegetables arranged for effect have con-
tinued to bring out good competitions and have proved most
attractive ; artistically arranged displays of vegetables always
interest the general public just as much as those of plants,
flowers, or fruits, and as much or more skill is needed in their
production, selection and proper staging as in any other
branch of exhibits seen at our shows. During the present year
the schedule provides for five competitive exhibitions for vege-
tables, but a specially good list of classes has been arranged
98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
for the Dahlia and late October shows, which it is believed
will bring out excellent displays.
The two large groups of vegetables staged at the September
and November shows by Joseph Breck & Sons Corp. have
proved star attractions and it is encouraging to know that we
will see more of these noteworthy displays. Not only do these
greatly interest the general public but they are a splendid
advertisement for the public-spirited firm making them. Your
committee does not recall any occasion when the gold medal
of this Society has been awarded for a vegetable display, but
they have earnest hopes that the present year may bring out
something of such outstanding excellence that it may be
deemed worthy of the highest award in the giving of the
The W. B. H. Dowse silver trophy for the exhibitor winning
the greatest number of points in the vegetable classes was
awarded to Mr. Arthur Lyman, George F. Stewart, superin-
tendent, who showed consistently and well during the past
year. More classes than formerly are scheduled for collec-
tions during 1924 and it is believed these will bring out
specially fine displays. Considering the extreme dryness of
the 1923 growing season we feel that the vegetable exhibits
were unusually good.
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is now fortunate
in owning Horticuture and it behooves members of the
Society to support this paper with short, pithy articles; the
management will, we feel sure, be glad to receive suggestions
for its improvement. At present vegetables and fruits are
practically ignored, even the splendid fruit and vegetable
show held last September was not even mentioned. Vege-
tables and fruits are of greater importance to many of our
members than plants and flowers, and if the latter only are to
receive mention in the magazine it would be better to change
the name to Floriculture. These criticisms are offered in the
most friendly spirit and with a sincere desire to improve our
official organ. Our paper should also give good reports of
our exhibitions with the prizes awarded, and not make it
necessary for members to purchase other magazines published
hundreds of miles away to find them.
William N. Craig, Chairman.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S GARDENS 99
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens
The annual exhibition of Children's Garden products held
on August 25 and 26 was very much smaller than usual.
While the dates selected were a little too early, the real cause
for the smallness of the displays of vegetables was the abnor-
mally dry weather which had persisted through practically
the entire summer. As the great bulk of the regular exhibi-
tors are in the cities, as the soil in the little gardens is nearly
in every case poor and lacking in humus matter, and water
in the majority of cases has to be carried considerable dis-
tances, it was not strange that exhibits showed a sharp shrink-
age. The quality of the exhibits was particularly good, and
it was pleasing to note the continued care take in the selection
of specimens as compared with even five years ago. The at-
tendance of the public was good, and great numbers of chil-
dren came and seemed to take a keen interest in the displays.
Brockton, as usual, proved to be a tower of strength to the
show, the ever enthusiastic school garden leader there, Miss
Burke, deserves our warmest thanks for the interest she con-
tinues to manifest in our Children's Garden shows.
The display of flowers, while good, was small compared with
preceding years. On the other hand the exhibit of native
flowers was a splendid one, the two largest displays contain-
ing from 400 to 500 vases of flowers each. The naming of these
deserved special commendation and might well serve as an
object lesson to the adult exhibitors at the other exhibitions of
Your committee considers the schedule of premiums as
offered in 1923 well varied and sufficiently attractive to ensure
a very much better exhibition during the present year. They
believe it would prove helpful to have a short conference of
school garden teachers and children in the small hall while
the judges are making their awards. An interchange of ideas,
and many helpful suggestions should come from such a meet-
ing. It is of vital importance to endeavor in every legitimate
way to hold the interest of the rising generation in gardening.
It will assist in no small measure in turning the tide of popu-
lation from the over-congested cities to the country districts —
a consummation devoutly to be wished.
William N. Craig,
For Committee on Children's Gardens.
Membership in the Massachusetts
The constitution of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
fixes the annual dues at $2.00. For many years it has been
customary to charge an admission fee of $10.00, but by vote
of the Trustees this requirement has been set aside for the
entire year of 1924. Until the end of this year the only charge
to new members will be $2.00, although this sum does not
cover the cost to the Society of the publications which they
Life membership is obtained by paying the sum of $30.00,
no further charge ever being required. Annual members who
have paid the entrance fee of $10.00 in past years may become
life members by paying $20.00 additional.
All members receive an identification card and a hand-
somely engraved certificate of membership. The card should
be presented when books are borrowed from the library.
Any man or woman in any part of the country who is
properly endorsed may make application for membership.
Many new members are needed in order to increase the influ-
ence of the Society, and to broaden the scope of its work.
Application blanks may be obtained by writing to
Note : — The secretary is glad to have present members send
in the names of friends who might like to become enrolled.
New Life Members
The following life members were added to the Society in
Mrs. Richard C. Cabot, Cambridge
Miss Mabel Choate, Stockbridge
Hon. Alvan T. Fuller, Boston
Stephen F. Hamblin, Lexington
James M. Howe, Jr., Daytona, Florida
Mrs. Charles Keyes, Groton
Arthur W. Lippincott, Stockbridge
Mrs. Lindsley Loring, Westwood
Mrs. Charles W. McKelvey, Orange, New Jersey
Harold J. Patten, Tewksbury
Charles Sumner Pierce, Milton
Harry Quint, Boston
Mrs. Jennie A. Richardson, Waltham
Mrs. E. S. Rousmaniere, Boston
Mrs. Ellery Sedgwick, Boston
Mrs. Gertrude I. Titus, Swampscott
Miss Mary C. Wheelwright, Boston
New Annual Members
The following annual members were added to the Society
Miss E. W. Biddle, Lenox
Mrs. James Geddes, Brookline
Walter E. High, Manchester, New Hampshire
Frederic C. Hood, Brookline
Mrs. Edward W. Hutchins, Boston
John Robert Johnston, Jamaica Plain
Mrs. Charles B. Manning, Manchester, New Hampshire
Horace B. Parker, Boston
Miss Grace M. Payson, Magnolia
Edwin Sexton, Elsmere, New York
Harold Stevens, Salem
Austin E. Thatcher, Dorchester
The following is a list of the members of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society who have died during the year 1923 :
Henry M. Whitney.
George A. Draper.
Osborn B. Hall.
Thomas J. Grey.
J. Henry Fletcher.
Mrs. William Caleb Loring.
George E. Crosby.
George D. Moore.
W. Prentiss Parker.
William Percival Edgar.
Horace S. Sears.
Miss Isabel M. Crompton.
William Fenwick Harris.
Thomas P. Beal.
Mrs. E. M. Lancaster.
George C. Waltham.
David P. Kimball.
Stephen P. Sharpies.
Alfred D. Chandler.
E. B. Mallett, Jr.
George H. Doty.
Loren D. Towle.
Edward Baker Wilder.
Miss Eleanor J. Clark.
Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural
Revised to January 1, 1924
Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons
who may know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circum-
stances showing that the following lists are inaccurate in any par-
ticular, will confer a favor by promptly communicating to the
Secretary the needed corrections.
1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, New York.
1900 Albert Vtger, President of the National Society of Horticul-
ture of France, Paris.
1921 J. F. Bailey, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, South
1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y.
1875 Professor William J. Beal, Amherst, Mass.
1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.
1918 Desire Bois, Paris, France.
1922 Joseph Edgar Chamberlin, Boston.
1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France.
1921 F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S., R.H.S. Gardens, Surrey, England.
1921 Alister Clark, Glenara, Bulla, Victoria.
1921 Dr. L. Cockayne, Wellington, New Zealand.
1911 John Dunbar, Park Department, Rochester, N. Y.
1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., "Whitcombe,"
104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1921 W. R. Dykes, Secretary of the Royal Horticultural Society,
1918 William C. Egan, Highland Park, 111.
1918 Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa.
1900 Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C.
1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, So. Dak.
1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, New York Agricultural Experiment
Station, Geneva, N. Y.
1907 Augusttne Henry, F.L.S., M.R.I.A., Professor of Forestry,
Royal College of Science, Dublin, Ireland.
1919 Lt.-Col. Sir George Holford, Tetbury, Gloucestershire, Eng-
1918 Charles L. Hutchinson, Chicago, 111.
1906 Senor Don Salvador Izquierdo, Santiago, Chile.
1918 Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich.
1921 C. E. Lane-Poole, Conservator of Forests, Perth, Western
1911 Emile Lemoine, Nancy, France.
1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa.
1921 J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S., Director and Govern-
ment Botanist, Sydney, New South Wales.
1875 T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y.
1911 Wilhelm Miller, Detroit, Mich.
1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland.
1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Director of the Missouri Botanical Gar-
den, St. Louis, Mo.
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, C.M.G., D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S.
1919 Seraphin Joseph Mottet, Verrieres-le-Buisson (Seine-et-
1912 C. Harman Payne, London, England.
1906 Lt.-Col. Sir David Prain, CLE., C.M.G., F.R.S., Kew, Eng-
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily.
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, C.M.G., F.R.S., Kew, England.
1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray
Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
1875 William Robinson, East Grinstead, Sussex, England.
1921 Leonard Rodway, C.M.G., Government Botanist and Secre-
tary, Botanic Gardens, Hobart, Tasmania.
1919 Eugene Schaettel, Paris, France.
1921 David Tannock, Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Dunedin,
1893 Professor William Trelease, University of Illinois, Urbana,
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 105
1882 Sir Harry J. Veitch, Chelsea, England.
1921 Jacques de Vilmorin, Paris, France.
1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amster-
1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England.
1894 William Watson, Kew, England.
1919 J. C. Williams, Gorran, Cornwall, England.
1906 Miss E. Willmott, Essex, England.
1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass.
1921 .Gurney Wilson, F.L.S., Richmond, Surrey, England.
1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Secretary of the Royal Prussian
Horticultural Society, Berlin, Prussia.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1899 Adams, Mrs. Charles Fran-
cis, South Lincoln.
1907 Adams, George E., Kings-
ton, R. I.
1897 Adams, Henry Saxton, Ja-
1899 Agassiz, Mrs. George R.,
1922 Alexandre, Mrs. John E.,
1894 Allen, Hon. Charles H.,
1916 Allen, Edward Ellis, Water-
1905 Allen, Mrs. Sarah R., Wil-
1898 Allen, Thomas, Boston.
1921 Allison, Frank H., Auburn-
1914 Ames, Mrs. F. L., North
1899 Ames, John S., North Eas-
1894 Ames, Oakes, North Easton.
1899 Ames, Oliver, North Easton
1867 Amory, Frederic, Boston.
1920 Andersen, Peter, Woburn.
1896 Anderson, George M., Mil-
1899 Anderson, Larz, Brookline.
1911 Anderson, William, South
1871 Appleton, Hon. Francis H.,
1914 Appleton, Francis R., New
York, N. Y.
1913 Appleton, Henry Saltonstall,
1914 Apthorp, Mrs. Harrison 0.,
1900 Arnold, Mrs. George Fran-
1894 Ash, John, Pomfret Centre,
1890 Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont.
1899 Ayer, James B., Boston.
1912 Bache, James S., Sharon,
1905 Backer, Clarence A., Mel-
1914 Bacon, Miss E. S., Jamaica
1905 Badger, Walter I., Cam-
1902 Bailey, Robert M., Dedham.
1902 Baker, Clifton P., Dedham.
1901 Baker, James E., South Lin-
1904 Balch, Joseph, Dedham.
1909 Baldwin, Frank F., Ashland.
1888 Barber, J. Wesley, Newton.
1905 Barnard, George E., Ips-
1866 Barnes, Walter S., Brook-
1898 Barr, John, South Natick.
1917 Barrett, Mrs. William Emer-
son, West Newton.
1897 Barry, John Marshall, Bos-
1901 Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Bos-
1914 Bartol, Dr. John W., Bos-
1915 Bartsch, Hermann H., Wav-
1901 Bates, Miss Mary D., Ips-
1915 Bauernfeind, John, Medford.
1899 Baylies, Walter C., Taunton.
1914 Beal, Mrs. Boylston, Boston.
1891 Becker, Frederick C., Cam-
1876 Beckford, Daniel R., Jr.,
1894 Beebe, E. Pierson, Boston.
1890 Beebe, Franklin H., Boston.
1905 Bemis, Frank B., Boston.
1914 Bemis, Mrs. Frank B., Bos-
1899 Bigelow, Albert S., Boston.
1914 Bigelow, Charles, Newton-
1899 Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohas-
1899 Bigelow, Dr. William Stur-
1899 Black, George N., Boston.
1885 Blake, Mrs. Arthur W.,
1914 Blake, Benjamin S., Auburn-
1897 Blake, Edward D., Boston.
1919 Blake, Hallie C, Lexington.
1919 Blake, Kenneth Pond, Lex-
1918 Blanchard, Archibald, Bos
1921 Blood, Charles 0., Lynn-
1921 Blood, Mrs. Charles O.,
1908 Blood, Eldredge H., Swamp-
1905 Boardman, Miss Eliza D.,
1914 Boit, Miss Elizabeth E.,
1883 Bowditch, James H., Brook-
1894 Bowditch, Nathaniel I.,
1877 Bowditch, William E., Rox^
1913 Brackett, C. Henry B., So.
1914 Brandegee, Mrs. Edward
1873 Breek, Charles H., Newton.
1900 Breck, Joseph Francis, Wa~
1914 Breck, Luther Adams, New-
1902 Breed, Edward W., Clinton.
1871 Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton,
1914 Brewer, Edward M., Milton,
1914 Brewer, Joseph, Milton.
1918 Brewer, William C, Newton
1919 Briggs, George E., Lexing-
1910 Briggs, Mrs. George R., Ply^
1897 Briggs, William S., Lincoln.
1873 Brigham, William T., Hono-
1909 Brooke, Edmund G., Jr.,
Providence, R. I.
1914 Brooks, Henry G., Milton.
1912 Brooks, Walter D., Milton.
1909 Brown, Mrs. John Carter,
Providence, R. I.
1907 Brush, Charles N., Brook-
1919 Buff, Louis F., Jamaica
1906 B u i 1 1 a , Vincent, Newton
1914 Bullard, Alfred M., Milton.
1922 Bullard, Mrs. William Nor^
1918 Burgess, George Arthur,
1920 Burgess, William H., Lex-
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1897 Burlen, William H., East
1895 Burnett, Harry, Southbor-
1911 Burnett, John T., Southbor-
1914 Burnett, Robert M., South-
1914 Burnham, Miss Helen C,
1909 Burr, I. Tucker, Milton.
1906 Burrage, Albert C, Boston.
1919 Burrage, Mrs. Albert C,
1918 Burrage, Albert C, Jr.,
1918 Burrage, Charles D., Boston.
1921 Burrage, Harry L., Boston.
1918 Burrage, Russell, Beverly
1907 Butterworth, George Will-
iam, South Framingham.
1906 Butterworth, J. Thomas, So.
1921 Butterworth, Miss Rachel,
1905 Buttrick, Stedman, Concord.
1902 Cabot, George E., Boston.
1914 Cabot, Henry B., Brookline,
1923 Cabot, Mrs. Richard C,
1896 Cameron, Robert, Ipswich.
1913 Campbell, Chester I., Wol-
1891 Campbell, Francis, Cam-
1899 Casas, W. B. de las, Maiden,
1911 Case, Miss Marian Roby,
1918 Chalifoux, Mrs. H. L., Prides
1873 Chamberlain, Chauncy W.,
1909 Chamberlain, Montague,
1920 Chandler, Joseph Everett,
1903 Chapman, John L., Prides
1917 Chase, H. F., Andover.
1909 Chase, Philip Putnam, Mil-
1923 Choate, Miss Mabel, Stock-
1921 Chubbuck, William H., Mat-
1876 Clapp, Edward B., Dorches-
1919 Clapp, Robert P., Lexington.
1896 Clark, B. Preston, Cohasset.
1907 Clark, Herbert A., Belmont.
1890 Clark, J. Warren, Millis.
1919 Clark, William Edwin,
1922 Clarkson, Mrs. Banyer, Ty-
1914 Clifford, Charles P., Milton.
1895 Clough, Micajah Pratt,
1894 Cobb, John C, Milton.
1906 Codman, Miss Catherine A.,
1914 Codman, James M., Brook-
1903 Cogswell, Edward R., Jr.,
1914 Collins, William J., Brooke
1917 Comley, Henry R., Lexing-
1902 Comley, Norris F., Lexing-
1921 Conant, Mrs. Nellie F., Bos-
1917 Converse, E. W., Newton.
1913 Cook, Thomas N., Water-
1917 Cooley, Arthur N., Pittsfield.
1914 Coolidge, Charles A., Bos-
1902 Coolidge, Harold J., Boston.
1899 Coolidge, J. Randolph,
1919 Copeland, Miss E. Gertrude,
1914 Cotting, Mrs. Charles E.,
1892 Cottle, Henry C, Boston.
1917 Cotton, Miss Elizabeth A.,
1914 Councilman, Dr. W. T., Bos-
1917 Cowey, S. R., York Harbor,
1913 Cox, Simon F., Mattapan.
1914 Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S.,
New York, N. Y.
1920 Craig, Mrs. Helen M;, Bos
1901 Craig, William Nicol, Wey-
1917 Crane, Charles R,, New
York, N. Y.
1917 Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr., Chi-
1891 Crawford, Dr. Sarah M.,
1881 Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica
1914 Crosby, Mrs. S. V. R., Bos-
1901 Cross, Alfred Richard, North
1921 Crowninshield, Benjamin
1921 Crowninshield, Francis B.,
1921 Crowninshield, Mrs. Francis
1909 Cumner, Mrs. Nellie B., Bos-
1856 Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica
1899 Curtis, Charles P., Boston.
1875 Curtis, Joseph H., Boston.
1920 Curtiss, Frederic Haines,
1906 Cutler, Mrs. Charles F., Bos-
1919 Cutler, Clarence H., Lexing-
1922 Cutler, Mrs. N. P., Newton.
1903 Cutler, Judge Samuel R.,
1897 Damon, Frederick W., Ar-
1908 Dane, Ernest B., Brookline.
1908 Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Brook-
1919 Danforth, Joseph A., Dan-
1899 Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Bos-
1909 Danielson, Mrs. J. DeForest,
1902 Davis, Mrs. Arthur E.,
1913 Davis, Bancroft Chandler,
1889 Davis, Frederick S., West
1916 Davis, Miss Helen I., Welles-
1914 Davis, Livingston, Milton.
1909 Dawson, Henry Sargent,
1905 Day, Henry B., West New-
1917 Day, Mrs. Mary E., Newton.
1921 De Nave, Paul, Wellesley.
1873 Denny, Clarence H., Boston.
1917 Dexter, George T., Boston.
1904 Dexter, Gordon, Beverly
1904 Dexter, Philip, Boston.
1921 Dodd, Dexter T., Hudson.
1922 Dodge, Mrs. Edwin Sherrill,
1896 Donald, William, Cold
Spring Harbor, N. Y.
1900 Donaldson, James, Roxbury.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1897 Dorr, George B., Bar Har-
1907 Doten, Scott T., Acton.
1914 Douglass, Alfred, Brookline.
1917 Downs, Jere Arthur, Win-
1910 Downs, William, Chestnut
1917 Dowse, Charles F., Boston.
1893 Dowse, William B. H., West
1917 Draper, B. H. Bristow,
1920 Draper, Eben S., Hopedale.
1897 Dumaresq, Herbert, Chest-
1899 Duncan, James L., New
York, N. Y.
1902 Duncan, John W., Spokane,
1896 Dunlap, James H., Nashua,
1915 Dunn, Stephen Troyte, F.L,
S., F.R.G.S., Twickenham,
1915 Dupee, William Arthur, Mil-
1909 Dupuy, Louis, Whitestone.
L. I., N. Y.
1880 Dutcher, Frank J., Hope-
1917 Dutcher, Miss Grace M.,
1902 Dyer, Herbert H., Arling^
1912 Eaton, Harris D., Southbor-
1918 Eccleston, Douglas, Beverly
1911 Edgar, Mrs. Rose H., Wav-
1895 Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston.
1921 Ellery, William, Brookline.
1921 Ellery, Mrs. William, Brook-
1887 Elliott, Mrs. John W., Bos^
1888 Elliott, William H. Brigh-
1907 Emerson, Nathaniel W., M.
1922 Emery, Miss Georgia H.,
1917 Emmons, Mrs. R. M., 2nd,
1894 Endicott, William, Boston.
1899 Endicott, William C, Dan-
1919 Endicott, Mrs. William C,
1919 Endicott, Mrs. William C,
1919 Engstrom, Richard, Lexing-
1915 Ernst, Mrs. Harold C, Ja-
1907 Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M.,
1907 Eustis, Miss Mary St.
1915 Fairbanks, Charles F., Mil-
1881 Fairchild, Charles, New
York, N. Y.
]877 Falconer, William, Pitts-
1884 Farlow, Lewis H., Boston.
1896 Farnsworth, Mrs. William,
1915 Farquhar, Mrs. John K. M.
1884 Farquhar, Robert, North
1917 Farr, Mrs. Betty K., Stone-
1908 Fay, Wilton B., West Med-
1914 Fearing, George R., Jr., Bos-
1917 Fenno, Mrs. Pauline Shaw,
1917 Fessenden, Sewell H., Bos-
1883 Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton
1904 Finlayson, Duncan, Jamaica
1892 Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica
1901 Fisher, Peter, Ellis.
1901 Fiske, Harry E., Wollaston.
1894 FitzGerald, Desmond, Brook-
1910 Flanagan, Joseph F., New-
1882 Fletcher, George C, Bel-
1917 Foot, Nathan Chandler, M.
1914 Forbes, Alexander, M.D.,
1909 Forbes, Charles Stewart,
]909 Forbes, Mrs. J. Malcolm,
1914 Forbes, W. Cameron, West-
1909 Forbes, Mrs. William H.,
1917 Fosdick, Lucian J., Boston.
1914 Foster, Alfred D., Milton/
1899 Foster, Charles H. W.,
1917 Foster, Miss Fanny, New-
port, R. I.
1885 Fottler, John, Jr., Dorches-
1914 Fraser, Charles E. K., South
1910 French, Mrs. Albert M.,
1893 French, W. Clifford, Pasa.
1917 Frishmuth, Miss Anna Bid-
1903 Frost, Harold L., Arlington.
1900 Frost, Irving B., Belmont.
1922 Frost, Paul, Cambridge.
1899 Frothingham, Mrs. Louis A.,
1923 Fuller, Hon. Alvan T., Bos-
1917 Gage, Mrs. Homer, Worces-
1920 Gale, Herbert E., Swamp-
1910 Galloupe, Frederic R., Lex-
1914 Gardiner, Robert H., Gardi-
1901 Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P.,
1895 Gardner, George P., Boston.
1899 Gardner, John L., Boston.
1899 Gardner, Mrs. John L., Bos-
1899 Gardner, William Amory,
1904 Garratt, Allan V., Holliston.
1899 Gaston, William A., Boston.
1911 Gavin, Frank D., Manches-
1910 Geiger, Albert, Jr., Brook-
1911 Gill, Miss Adeline Bradbury,
1911 Gill, Miss Eliza M., Boston.
1887 Gill, George B., Boston.
1919 Gilmore, George L., Lexing-
1907 Goddard, Samuel J., Fram-
1922 Godfrey, Mrs. Hollis, Dux-
1921 Goodale, Geoffrey D., Bos-
1904 Goodale, Dr. Joseph L., Bos-
1899 Gray, Mrs. John C, Boston.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1914 Greene, Edwin Farnham,
1905 Greenough, Mrs. Charles P.,
1912 Greenough, Mrs. David S.,
1914 Grew, Edward W., Boston.
1919 Griffin, Arthur E., Marion.
1897 Hale, James 0., Byfield.
1910 Hale, Mrs. Swinburne, New
York, N. Y.
1873 Hall, Edwin A., Cambridge-
1912 Hall, Mrs. George G., Bos-
1899 Hall, Jackson E., Cam-
1910 Halloran, Edward J., New-
1923 Hamblin, Stephen F., Lex-
1917 Hammond, Mrs. E. C, Au-
1914 Harding, Charles L., Ded-
1918 Harding, Mrs. Edward,
Plainfield, N. J.
1889 Hargraves, William J., Ja-
1887 Harris, Thaddeus William
A. M., Littleton, N. H.
1909 Hart, Francis R., Milton.
1914 Hartt, Arthur W., Brookline.
1895 Harwood, George Fred, New-
1884 Hastings, Levi W., Brook-
1894 Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley.
1914 Havemeyer, Theodore A.,
New York, N. Y.
1922 Haynes, Edmund B., Bos-
1899 Hayward, George P., Chests
1914 Hayward, H. T., Franklin.
1905 Head, Thomas W., Red
Bank, N. J.
1913 Heeremans, F., Lenox.
1903 Hellier, Charles E., Boston.
1888 Hemenway, Augustus, Bos-
1899 Hemenway, Mrs. Augustus,
1914 Hemenway, Augustus, Jr.,
1884 Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Bos-
1899 Henshaw, Samuel, Cam-
1901 Heurlin, Julius, South
1922 Heurlin, Victor J., South
1891 Heustis, Warren H., Bel-
1894 Hewett, Miss Mary Crane,
1900 Higginson, Francis L., Bos-
1902 Higginson, Mrs. Henry L.,
1886 Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont.
1895 Hoitt, Hon. Charles W.,
1918 Holbrook, Miss Grace Ware,
1914 Hollingsworth, Valentine,
1899 Hollingsworth, Z. T., Boston.
1891 Holmes, Edward J., Boston.
1900 Holt, William W., Norway,
1899 Hood, Lady Ellen, Sheen,
1922 Hopkinton, Mrs. Charles,
1914 Hornblower, Henry, Boston.
1922 Horsford, Miss Cornelia C.
1888 Horsford, Miss Kate, Cam-
1902 Hosmer, Oscar, Baldwins-
1907 Houghton, Clement S.,
1913 Houghton, Mrs. Clement S.,
1910 Houghton, Miss Elizabeth
1872 Hovey, Charles H., South
1884 Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn.
1917 Howard, Everett C, Belcher-
1904 Howard, Henry M., West
1896 Howard, Joseph W., Somer-
1923 Howe, James M., Jr., Day-
1915 Howes, Mrs. Ernest, Boston.
1917 Howes, Osborne, Chestnut
1896 Hubbard, Charles Wells,
1917 Hubbard, Eliot, Cambridge.
1893 Hubbard, F. Tracy, Brooke
1913 Huebner, H., Groton.
1917 Hunnewell, Mrs. Arthur,
1912 Hunnewell, F. W., Welles-
1893 Hunnewell, Henry Sargent^
1912 Hunnewell, Mrs. Henry S.,
1922 Hunnewell, Miss Louisa,
1912 Hunnewell, Walter, Welles-
1917 Hunt, Miss Belle, Boston.
1919 Hunt, AVilliam, Lexington.
1880 Hunt, William H., Belmont.
1919 PAnson, George, Beverly
1893 Jack, John George, East
1886 Jackson, Charles L., Boston.
1914 Jackson, Mrs. James, Jr.,
1884 Jackson, Robert T., Peter^
borough, N. H.
1916 Jahn, Paul H., East Bridge-
1916 Jahn, William O., East
1902 James, Ellerton, Milton.
1902 James, Mrs. Ellerton, Mil-
1913 Jeffries, John, 5th, Philadel-
1899 Jeffries, William A., Boston.
1865 Jenks, Charles W., Bedford.
1905 Johnson, Arthur S., Boston.
1921 Johnson, C. B., Woburn.
1914 Johnson, Edward C, Boston.
1885 Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden.
1922 Jones, Miss Eleanor P.,
1897 Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston.
1922 Judd, William H., Jamaica
1920 Keith, Simeon C, Brookline.
1897 Kellen, William V., Marion.
1898 Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem.
1891 Kendall, Dr. Walter G., At-
1898 Kennard, Frederic H., New-
1909 Kennedy, Harris, M.D., Mil-
1905 Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer,
1923 Keyes, Mrs. Charles, Groton.
1891 Keyes, John M., Concord.
1889 Kidder, Charles A., South-
1910 Kidder, Mrs. Henry P., Bos-
1880 Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1903 Kimball, Richard D., ¥a-
1899 Kinney, H. R., Worcester.
1906 Kinnicutt, Mrs. Leonard P.,
1904 Kirkland, Archie Howard,
1899 Lamb, Horatio A., Milton.
1913 Lancaster, Dr. Walter B.,
1899 Lanier, Charles, Lenox.
1917 Lapham, Henry G., Brook-
1920 Lauriat, Charles E., Jr.,
1895 Lawrence, Amos A., New
York, N. Y.
1873 Lawrence, John, Groton.
1899 Lawrence, Rt. Rev. William,
1914 Lee, George C, Westwood.
1880 Leeson, Hon. Joseph R.,
1920 Leigh, Mrs. George Taylor,
1902 Leighton, George B., Mom
adnock, N. H.
1914 Leland, Lester, Boston.
1914 Leland, Mrs. Lester, Boston,
1903 Libby, Charles W., Medford.
1917 Liggett, Louis K., Chestnut
1922 Linder, John Farlow, Can-
1923 Lippincott, Arthur H.,
1899 Locke, Isaac H., Belmont.
1891 Lodge, Richard W., Red,
1897 Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford.
1899 Loring Augustus P., Prides
1919 Loring, Augustus P. Jr.,
1919 Loring, Mrs. A. P., Prides
1914 Loring, Miss Katharine P.,
1923 Loring, Mrs. Lindsley, West-
1914 Loring, Miss Louisa P.,
1896 Loring, William Caleb,
1921 Loveless, Alfred J., Lenox.
1899 Lowell, Abbott Lawrence,
1902 Lowell, Miss Amy, Brook-
1903 Lowell, James A., Chestnut
1904 Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston.
1899 Luke, Otis H., Brookline.
1895 Lunt, William W., Hingham.
1918 Lyman, Arthur, Boston.
1914 Lyman C. Frederic, Boston.
1895 Lyman, George H., Ware-
1898 Mabbett, George, Plymouth.
1919 McGregor, Frank J., New-
1912 McKay, Alexander, Jamaica
1922 McKee, Mrs. William L.,
1923 McKelvey, Mrs. Charles W.,
Orange, N. J.
1911 McKenzie, Donald, Chest-
1920 Manda, Joseph, West
Orange, N. J.
1884 Manda, W. A., South
Orange, N. J.
1890 Manning, A. Chandler, Wil-
1887 Manning, J. Woodward,
1884 Manning, Warren H., North
1909 Marlborough, James, Tops-
1876 Marshall, Frederick F.,
1898 Marston, Howard, Brook-
1917 Martin, Edwin S., Chestnut
1899 Mason, Miss Ellen F., Bos-
1919 Mason, Miss Fanny P., Bos-
1896 Mason, Col. Frederick,
1922 Mason, Henry Lowell, Bos-
1914 Mathews, Miss Elizabeth
Ashby, Newton Center
1901 Matthews, Nathan, Boston.
1906 Maxwell, George H., New-
1917 Mead, Francis V., West
1917 Meader, H. E., Dover, N. H.
1902 Melvin, George, South
1905 Meredith, J. Morris, Tops-
1919 Merriam, Edward P., Lex-
1881 Merriam, Herbert, Weston.
1917 Methven, James, Brookline.
1884 Metivier, James, Waltham.
1922 Mezit, Peter J., Weston.
1914 Miller, Peter M., Mattapan.
1888 Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Wash-
ington, D. C.
1917 Mink, Oliver W., Boston.
1915 Minot, Mrs. Charles S.,
1896 Montgomery, Alexander,
1902 Montgomery, Alexander, Jr.,
1881 Moore, John H., Concord.
1897 Morgan, George H., New
York, N. Y.
1914 Morgan, Mrs. J. P., Jr.,
New York, N. Y.
1913 Morison, Robert S., Cam-
1899 Morse, John T., Boston.
1909 Morse, John Torrey, 3d.,
1910 Morse, Lewis Kennedy, Box-
1913 Morse, Robert C, Milton.
1914 Morss, Charles A., Chestnut
1914 Morss, Mrs. Charles A.,
1902 Morton, James H., Hunting-
ton, N. Y.
1896 Moseley, Charles H., Rox-
1896 Moseley, Frederick Strong,
1921 Motley, Mrs. Thomas, Jr.,
1914 Munroe, Howard M., Lex-
1900 Murray, Peter, Fairhaven.
1897 Mutch, John, Waban.
1921 Nason, Thomas W., Boston.
1917 Neal, James A., Brookline.
1899 Nevins, Mrs. David,
1914 Newbold, Frederic R., New
York, N. Y.
1874 Newman, John R., Winches-
1874 Newton, Rev. William W.,
1919 Nichols, Mrs. W. L., Brook-
1895 Nicholson, William, Fram-
1914 Nicholson, William R.,
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1906 Nickerson, William E., Bos-
1914 Norman, Mrs. Louisa P.,
Newport, R. I.
1881 Norton, Charles W., Allston.
1921 Norton, Miss Christine A.,
1920 Norton, Harry A., Ayer's
Cliff, Quebec, Canada.
1921 O'Brien, John J., Boston.
1912 O'Conner, John, Brookline.
1898 Olmstead, Frederick Law,
1898 Orpet, Edward 0., Santa
1919 Osgood, Miss Alice J.,
1921 Osgood, Dana, Hopedale.
1917 Osgood, Miss Fanny C,
1909 Page, George, Prides Cross-
1909 Page, George William, South
1900 Page, Mrs. Henrietta, Bos-
1884 Paige, Clifton H., Mattapan.
1914 Paine, Robert Treat, 2d,
1908 Parker, Augustine H.,
1913 Parker, Edgar, North
1911 Parker, Edward, North
1915 Parker, Miss Eleanor S.,
1921 Parker, Mrs. Harriet Talbot,
1917 Parkhurst, Lewis, Winches-
1891 Parkman, Henry, Boston.
1922 Parsons, Miss Mary, Lenox.
1923 Patten, Harold J., Tewkes-
1914 Patten, Miss Jane B., South
1909 Peabody, Francis, Milton.
1909 Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Mil-
1899 Peabody, George A., Dan-
1907 Peirce, E. Allan, Waltham.
1916 Peirce, Edward R., Welles-
1915 Penn, Henry, Brookline.
1917 Peterson, George H., Fair
Lawn, N. J.
1899 Pfaff, Col. Charles, South
1900 Phillips, John C, North
1899 Phillips, Mrs. John C,
1899 Phillips, William, North
1895 Pickman, Dudley L., Boston.
1902 Pickman, Mrs. Dudley L.,
1923 Pierce, Charles Sumner, Mil-
1881 Pierce, Dean, Brookline.
1898 Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brook-
1905 Pierson, Frank R., Tarrj^
town, N. Y.
1914 Pingree, David, Salem.
1919 Pocock, Frederick, Beverly
1900 Pond, Preston, Winchester.
1892 Porter, James C, Wollaston,
1884 Pratt, Laban, Dorchester.
1914 Pratt, Waldo E., Wellesley
1898 Pray, James Sturgis, Cam-
1914 Preston, Andrew W.,
1903 Preston, Howard Willis,
Providence, R. I.
1911 Priest, Lyman F., Gleason^
1901 Proctor, Thomas E., Boston.
1883 Purdie, George A., Welles-
1899 Putnam, George, Manches-
1900 Putnam, George J., Brook-
1886 Quinby, Hosea M., M.D.,
1923 Quint, Harry, Boston.
1889 Rand, Harry S., North Cam-
1908 Rand, Miss Margaret A.,
1903 Rawson, Herbert W., Ar-
1882 Ray, James F., Franklin.
1890 Raymond, Walter, Pasadena,
1897 Rea, Frederic J., Norwood.
1891 Read, Charles A., Manches-
1902 Reardon, Edmund, Cam-
1892 Reardon, John B., Boston.
1905 Remick, Frank W., West
1889 Rice, George C, Worcester.
1893 Rich, Miss Ruth G., Liver*
more Falls, Me.
1888 Rich, William E. C, Ocean
1887 Rich, William P., Chelsea.
1876 Richards, John J., Brooke
1899 Richardson, Mrs. F. L. W.,
Charles River Village.
1912 Richardson, H. H., Brook.
1923 Richardson, Mrs. Jennie A.,
1918 Richardson, William K., Na-
1900 Richardson, Dr. William L.,
1905 Riggs, William Allan, Au*
1917 Riley, Charles E., Newton.
1886 Ripley, Charles, Dorchester.
1903 Robb, Russell, Concord.
1909 Roberts, Miss Anna B., Bos-
1909 Robinson, Alfred E., Lex-
1871 Robinson, John, Salem.
1893 Robinson, Walter A., Ar-
1911 Rogers, Dexter M., Allston.
1914 Rogers, Dudley P., Danvers.
1921 Rogers, Miss Madelaine G.,
1900 Roland, Thomas, Nahant.
1922 Rose, Mrs. Edward, Chests
1910 Ross, Harold S., Hingham.
1892 Ross, Henry Wilson, New-
1895 Roth well, James E., Brook-
1923 Rousmaniere, Mrs. E. S.,
1899 Roy, David Frank, Wake-
1875 Russell, George, Woburn.
1900 Russell, James S., Milton.
1921 Russell, John L., Dedham.
1914 Russell, Mrs. Robert S.,
1919 Ryder, Charles W., Newton-
1893 Salisbury, William C. G.,
1915 Saltonstall, Mrs. Caroline S.,
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1912 Saltonstall, John L., Boston.
1912 Saltonstall, Mrs. John L.,
1897 Sander, Charles J., Brook-
1898 Sanger, Mrs. George P., Bos-
1922 Sargent, Miss Alice, Brook-
1870 Sargent, Charles S., Brook-
1902 Sargent, Charles Sprague,
Jr., Cedarhurst, N. Y.
1899 Sargent, Mrs. Francis W.,
1922 Sargent, Miss Georgiana,
1875 Saunders, Miss Mary T.,
1921 Schling, Max, New York,
1895 Sears, Miss Clara E., Bos-
1899 Sears, Dr. Henry F. Boston.
1899 Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery,
1923 Sedgwick, Mrs. Ellery, Bos-
1898 Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston.
1914 Shattuck, Dr. Frederick C,
1914 Shattuck, Mrs. Frederick C,
1899 Shaw, Francis, Brookline.
1914 Shaw, Henry S v Milton.
1899 Shaw, Mrs. Robert G.,
1901 Shea, James B., Jamaica
1920 Shurtleff, Arthur A., Boston.
1901 Shurtleff, Josiah B., Revere.
1893 Siebrecht, H. A., New Ro^
chelle, N. Y.
1917 Silber, Miss Charlotte G.,
1899 Sleeper, Henry Davis, Bos-
1903 Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mov
honk, N. Y.
1888 Smith, Charles S., Lincoln.
1919 Smith, Earnest E., Boston.
1911 Smith, John L., Swampscott.
1874 Snow, Eugene A., Allston.
1899 Sohier, Col. William D. v
1918 Spalding, Miss Dora N.,
1908 Spaulding, John T., Prides
1908 Spaulding, William S.,
1897 Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley
1922 Sprague, Phineas W., Bos^
1884 Stearns, Charles H., Brooke
1893 Stearns, Frank W., Newton.
1896 Stedman, Henry R,, M. D.,
1914 Stevens, Mrs. Nathaniel,
1919 Stewart, George F., Wal-
1918 Stimpson, Harry F., Chest-
1901 Stone, Charles A., Newton.
1889 Stone, Charles W., Boston.
1910 Stone, Mrs. Francis H., So.
1914 Stone, Galen L , Brookline.
1896 Stone, Prof. George E., Am-
1914 Stone, J. Winthrop, Water,
1914 Stone, Nathaniel H., Milton.
1917 Storey, Moorfield, Boston.
1905 Storrow, James J., Boston.
3918 Stranger, David C, West
1905 Stratton, Charles E., Boston.
1906 Strout, Charles S., Bidde-
1914 Sturgis, Miss Evelyn R.,
1902 Sturgis, Richard Clipston,
1916 Sturtevant, Miss Grace, Wel-
1921 Sturtevant, Robert Swan,
1910 Sullivan, Martin, Jamaica
1912 Swan, Charles EL, Jamaica
1891 Sweet, Everell F., Maiden.
1916 Swett, Raymond W., New-
1904 Sylvester, Edmund Q., Han-
1900 Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, Jr.,
Columbia, S. C.
1913 Tedcastle, Mrs. Arthur W.,
1917 Thacher, Miss Elizabeth B.,
1921 Thairlwall, William C, Bos-
1912 Thatcher, Arthur E., Hull's
1898 Thatcher, William, Brook-
1900 Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South
1903 Thayer, Henry J., Boston.
1899 Thayer, John E., South Lan-
1899 Thayer, Mrs. John E., South
1899 Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel,
1899 Thiemann, Hermann, Owos-
1899 Thomas, W. B., Manchester.
1921 Thompson, Eben F., Wor~
1910 Thurlow, George C, West
1913 Thurlow, Winthrop H.,
1923 Titus, Mrs. Gertrude F M
1896 Toppan, Roland W., New^
1899 Tower, Miss Ellen May,
1893 Trepess, Samuel J., Glen-
cove, L. I., N. Y.
1922 Tudor, Mrs. Henry D., Cam-
1917 Tufts, Bowen, Medford.
1910 Turner, Chester Bidwell,
1914 Tyler, Charles H., Boston.
1919 Tyndall, David, Brockton.
1901 Underwood, Loring, Bel-
1921 Van Baarda, P. J., North
1919 Vander Voet, Christian, Ja^
1873 Vander- Woerd, Charles,
1881 Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111.
1899 Vaughan, William Warren,
1884 Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somer-
1916 Wagstaff, Archibald, Welles^
1876 Walcott, Henry P., M. D.,
1895 Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica
1907 Walton, Arthur G., Wake-
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1902 Warburton, Chatterton, Fall
1912 Wardwell, Mrs. T. Otis,
1894 Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston.
1909 Warren, Bentley W., Boston.
1884 Watson, Thomas A., East
1914 Watters, W. F., Boston.
1905 Webster, Edwin S., Chest-
1914 Webster, Mrs. Edwin S.,
1905 Webster, Frank G., Boston.
1907 Webster, George H., Haver-
1896 Webster, Hollis, Cambridge.
1905 Webster, Laurence J., Chest-
1909 Weeks, Andrew Gray,
1902 Welch, Edward J., Dorches*
1914 Weld, Mrs. Charles G.,
1917 Weld, Rudolph, Boston.
1914 Weld, Mrs. Stephen M.,
1912 Wellington, Mrs. Arthur W.,
1917 Wellington, William H.,
1882 West, Mrs. Maria L., Nepon-
1919 Wheeler, Everett P., Rock-
1889 Wheeler, James, Natick.
1897 Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord.
1923 Wheelwright, Miss Mary C,
1919 Whitcomb, Myron L., Haver-
1901 White, Mrs. Charles T., Bos-
1909 White, Harry K, Milton.
1917 Whitehouse, Mrs. Francis
1905 Whitman, William, Brook-
1894 Whitney, Arthur E., Win-
1894 Whitney, Ellerton P., Mil-
1917 Whittemore, Charles, Cam-
1915 Wigglesworth, Frank, Mil-
1899 Wigglesworth, George, Mil-
1889 Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., Can-
1897 Wilkie, Edward A., Newton-
1899 Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin,
1905 Williams, George Percy,
1899 Williams, John Davis, Bos-
1905 Williams, Mrs. J. Bertram,
1905 Williams, Mrs. Moses,
1911 Williams, Ralph B., Dover.
1915 Wilson, E. H., Jamaica
1914 Wilson, Fred A., Nahant.
1919 Wilson, James A., Lexing-
1881 Wilson, William Power, Bos-
1921 Winkler, Edward, Wakefield.
1917 Winslow, Arthur, Boston.
1905 Winsor, Robert, Weston.
1920 Winter, Miss Hattie B.,
1906 Winter, Herman L., Port-
1914 Winthrop, Grenville L.,
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert, New
York, N. Y.
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert C,
1920 Wister, John C., Philadel-
1921 Wollrath, Henry J., Wal-
1905 Woodberry, Miss E. Ger-
trude, Winter Hill.
1905 Woodbury, John, Canton.
1906 Woodward, Mrs. Samuel
1920 Worthley, L. H., Arlington.
1917 Wright, George S., Water-
1921 Wyman, Richard M., Fram-
1919 Wyman, Walton G., North
1900 Wyman, Windsor H., North
1921 Young, Mrs. Charlotte W.,
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1921 Abbott, Mrs. Gordon, Bos-
1913 Adams, Charles F., Jamaica
1919 Alexander, J. K., East
1921 Arnott, Peter, Chestnut Hill.
1912 Babcock, Miss Mabel Keyes,
1911 Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury.
1915 Baker, Mrs. G. B., Chestnut
1918 Barnes, Rowland H., New-
1916 Barron, Leonard, Garden
City, N. Y.
1917 Beal, Thomas P., Jr., Bos-
1923 Biddle, Miss E. W., Lenox.
1917 Bogholt, Christian M., New-
port, R. I.
1921 Boyle, Charles F., Boston.
1901 Bradley, Miss Abby A.,
1921 Breed, George A., Stock.
1922 Brewer, Robert D., Hing.
1909 Brigham, Mrs. Clifford, Mil-
1916 Brown, Mrs. G. Winthrop,
1921 Burke, Patrick W., Brook-
1922 Burnhome, Mrs. M. S., Bos-
1921 Caddick, Edgar, Wellesley
1914 Campbell, Ernest W., Wol-
1910 Camus, Emil, Boston.
1917 Carlquist, Sigurd W., Lenox.
1920 Cheney, Mrs. Frederick E. k
1917 Child, H. Walter, Boston.
1918 Clarke, Hermann F., Brook-
1918 Cogger, Thomas, Melrose.
1921 Cole, Harry, Readville.
1914 Colt, James D., Chestnut
1907 Colt, Mrs. James D., Chest-
1919 Conant, Miss Margaret W.,
1917 Conant, Mrs. William C,
1917 Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Bos-
1915 Copson, William A., Roslin-
1914 Crocker, Mrs. George
1914 Crocker, Joseph Ballard,
1914 Crompton, Miss Mary A.,
1917 Curtis, Allen, Boston.
1914 Cushing, Mrs. Harvey,
1910 Dahl, Frederick William,
1917 Dalton, Philip S., Milton.
1921 Darling, Edgar W v New
1921 Dickinson, Edward F., Bil-
1911 Dolansky, Frank J., Lynn.
1918 Donald, James, Hingham.
1921 Drew, Fred, M. D., Boston.
1921 Duly, Richard J., Newton.
1919 Emery, Frederick L., Lex-
1916 Estabrooks, Dr. John W.,
1922 Eustis, Mrs. Augustus H.,
1902 Farlow, Mrs. William G.,
1919 Farrington, Edward I., Wey-
1921 Fish, A. J., New Bedford.
1922 Fish, George L., South Bil-
1917 Fiske, David L., Grafton.
1922 Fletcher, Miss Effie J., Bos
1903 Freeman, Miss Harriet E.,
1919 French, C. H., West Rox-
1912 Gage, L. Merton, Groton.
1923 Geddes, Mrs. James, Brook-
1922 Gersdorff, Mrs. Carl A. de,
1919 Golby, Walter H., Jamaica
1917 Gordon, George, Beverly.
1921 Gorney, Elijah S., Boston.
1917 Graton, Louis, Whitman.
1900 Grey, Robert Melrose, Bel-
1919 Hall, Joseph B., Cambridge.
1908 Hamilton, Mrs. George
1912 Hardy, John H., Jr., Little-
1917 Hathaway, Walter D., New
1918 Hayes, Herbert W., Waban.
1910 Hayward, Mrs. W. E., Ip^
1922 Heredia, Mrs. Carlos M. de,
1916 Hibbard, Miss Ann, West
1914 Higginson, Mrs. Alexander
1920 Higginson, Mrs. Frederic,
1923 High, Walter E., Manches-
ter, N. H.
1902 Hildreth, Miss Ella F., West-
1902 Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston.
1921 Hill, John Edward, Provi-
dence, R. I.
1912 Hollings worth, Mrs. Sum-
1913 Holmes, Eber, Halifax.
1923 Hood, Frederic C, Brook-
1917 Howard, W. D., Milford.
1900 Howden, Thomas, Hudson.
1917 Howe, Henry S., Brookline.
1902 Hubbard, Allen, Newton
1921 Hughes, Thomas H., New
1923 Hutchins, Mrs. Edward W.,
1922 Jackson, Mrs. James, Bos-
1921 Jenkins, Allen J., Shrews-
1913 Jenkins, Edwin, Lenox.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL. SOCIETY
1916 Jenks, Albert R., West Ac-
1921 Johnson, John, Pittsfield.
1923 Johnston, John Robert, Ja-
1903 Johnston, Robert, Lexington,
1912 Kirkegaard, John, Bedford.
1921 Kunan, Ernst, Arlington.
1914 Leach, C. Arthur, South
1914 Leary, Dr. Timothy, Jamai-
1904 Leuthy, A., Roslindale.
1902 Lewis, E. L., Taunton.
1901 Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Bos-
1903 Lumsden, David, Washing-
ton, D. C.
1922 Mackie, Mrs. David Ives,
1923 Manning, Mrs. Charles B.,
Manchester, 1ST. H.
1922 Mercer, Mrs. William R.,
1919 Millett, Charles H., Melrose
1917 Mixter, Dr. Samuel J., Bos-
1914 Morse, Frank E., Auburn-
1920 Naber, Henry L. F., West
1916 Nehrling, Prof. Arno H.,
Ithaca, N. Y.
1903 Nixon, J. Arthur, Taunton.
1915 Parker, A. S., Stoneham.
1923 Parker, Horace B., Boston.
1921 Parks, Mrs. Frances R.,
1923 Payson, Miss Grace M.,
1908 Peabody, Mrs. W. Rodman,
1914 Pembroke, A. A., Beverly.
1921 Pinault, Z. R., Fairhaven.
1922 Plimpton, Mrs. Harold,
1921 Pope, Mrs. Henrietta Mar-
1902 Pritchard, John, Bedford
Hills, N. Y.
1912 Proctor, Dr. Francis I., Wel-
1912 Reed, H. B., Auburndale.
1914 Rees, Ralph W., Ithaca,
1900 Robb, Peter B., Whitinsville.
1921 Rogers, Alfred E. T., Prides
1921 Rogers, Andrew K., Read-
1915 Rosenthal, Wolf, Boston.
1922 Russell, Mrs. Charles F.,
1910 Rust, William C, Brookline.
1918 Rutherford, William D. F.,
1918 Ryder, Robert L., Lexing-
1907 Sanborn, Edward W., Bos-
1920 Saunders, Maurice M., Bos-
1910 Sears, Prof. F. C, Amherst.
1907 Seaver, Robert, Jamaica
1923 Sexton, Edwin, Elsmere,
1922 Shaw, Mrs. Brackley, Chest-
1921 Shaw, Mrs. Quincy A., Bos-
1907 Sim, William, Cliftondale.
1920 Simmons, Miss Annie E. E.,
1914 Smith, George N., Wellesley
1922 Smith, Mrs. Henry P., Bos-
1914 Spaulding, Mrs. Samuel S.,
Springfield Center, N. Y.
1921 Spencer, S. E., Woburn.
1914 Sprague, George H., Hamil-
1922 Steele, Fletcher, Boston.
1917 Stephen, A. L., Waban.
1923 Stevens, Harold, Salem.
1914 Stevenson, Robert H., Read-
1921 Stewart, Henry, Waltham.
1922 Stewart, John W., Martins-
burg, W. Ya.
1914 Storey, Mrs. Richard 0.,
1914 Sturgis, Miss Lucy Codman,
1904 Symmes, Samuel S., Win*
1923 Thatcher, Austin E., Dor-
1921 Thayer, Clark Leonard, Am-
1914 Thayer, John E., Jr., Lam
1919 Thommen, Gustave, Somer-
1919 Tillinghast, Joseph J., Hyde
1909 Tracy, B. Hammond, Wen-
1922 Turner, Miss Mabel E., MaL
1922 Tyson, Mrs. Russell, Chi-
1911 Ufford, Charles A., Dorches-
1922 Ware, Mrs. Whitman, Bos-
1922 Warner, Dr. Charles T.,
1914 Waterer, Anthony, 3d, Phila*
1914 Waterer, Hosea, Philadel-
1915 Wetterlow, Eric H., Man-
1909 Wheeler, George F., Com
1919 Wheeler, Harry A., Lexing-
1917 White, Mrs. Joseph H.,
1922 Whitney, Byam, Boston.
1920 Whitney, Leon F., North-
1913 Williams, Mrs. Emile F.,
1919 Williams, Henrv M., Haver-
1923 Willis, C. W., Bedford.
1922 Willis, Mrs. C. W., Bedford.
1921 Wollrath, Albert J., Wal-
Form of Bequest
I give and bequeath to the Massachusetts Horticul
tural Society the sum of
to be used as the Trustees may direct for the promo
tion of horticulture in Massachusetts.